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Coatings 2014, 4(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/coatings4010001
Article

Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

1,* , 1
, 2
 and 2,3
1 Department for Innovations in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy 2 Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Engineering Building I, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA 3 Golden LEAF Biomanufacturing Training & Education Center, 850 Oval Drive, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Coatings with Biotechnology)
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Abstract

We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted), the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1). These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.
Keywords: biocatalytic latex inks and biocoatings; ink-jet printed biocoatings; whole-cell biosensors; immobilized G. oxydans; oxidation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose biocatalytic latex inks and biocoatings; ink-jet printed biocoatings; whole-cell biosensors; immobilized G. oxydans; oxidation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Fidaleo, M.; Bortone, N.; Schulte, M.; Flickinger, M.C. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings. Coatings 2014, 4, 1-17.

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