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Antibiotics 2015, 4(4), 411-423; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4040411

A Review of Management of Clostridium difficile Infection: Primary and Recurrence

1
St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 50 Charlton Ave. East, Hamilton, ON L8N 4A6, Canada
2
Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Fu Chang
Received: 11 July 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [665 KB, uploaded 24 September 2015]

Abstract

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a potentially fatal illness, especially in the elderly and hospitalized individuals. The recurrence and rates of CDI are increasing. In addition, some cases of CDI are refractory to the currently available antibiotics. The search for improved modalities for the management of primary and recurrent CDI is underway. This review discusses the current antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and other options such as immunotherapy and administration of non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile (CD) for the management of both primary and recurrent CDI. View Full-Text
Keywords: recurrence; Clostridium difficile infection; fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); probiotics; immunotherapy; antibiotics recurrence; Clostridium difficile infection; fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); probiotics; immunotherapy; antibiotics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vincent, Y.; Manji, A.; Gregory-Miller, K.; Lee, C. A Review of Management of Clostridium difficile Infection: Primary and Recurrence. Antibiotics 2015, 4, 411-423.

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