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Antibiotics 2015, 4(3), 337-357; doi:10.3390/antibiotics4030337

Colonization Resistance of the Gut Microbiota against Clostridium difficile

1
Joint Research Unit of Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of Valencian Region (FISABIO) and the Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology (ICBiBE) of the University of Valencia, Valencia 46020, Spain
2
CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yung-Fu Chang
Received: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridium difficile Infection)
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Abstract

Antibiotics strongly disrupt the human gut microbiota, which in consequence loses its colonization resistance capacity, allowing infection by opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. This bacterium is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a current problem in developed countries, since its incidence and severity have increased during the last years. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance strains has reduced the efficiency of the standard treatment with antibiotics, leading to a higher rate of relapses. Here, we review recent efforts focused on the impact of antibiotics in the gut microbiome and their relationship with C. difficile colonization, as well as, in the identification of bacteria and mechanisms involved in the protection against C. difficile infection. Since a healthy gut microbiota is able to avoid pathogen colonization, restoration of the gut microbiota seems to be the most promising approach to face C. difficile infection, especially for recurrent cases. Therefore, it would be possible to design probiotics for patients undergoing antimicrobial therapies in order to prevent or fight the expansion of the pathogen in the gut ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; Clostridium difficile; gut microbiota restoration; colonization resistance antibiotics; Clostridium difficile; gut microbiota restoration; colonization resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pérez-Cobas, A.E.; Moya, A.; Gosalbes, M.J.; Latorre, A. Colonization Resistance of the Gut Microbiota against Clostridium difficile. Antibiotics 2015, 4, 337-357.

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