Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 398-434; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030398

Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

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Received: 3 June 2014; in revised form: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.
Keywords: OXA; β-lactamase; plasmid; class D; carbapenemase; kinetics; crystal structure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antunes, N.T.; Fisher, J.F. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases. Antibiotics 2014, 3, 398-434.

AMA Style

Antunes NT, Fisher JF. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases. Antibiotics. 2014; 3(3):398-434.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antunes, Nuno T.; Fisher, Jed F. 2014. "Acquired Class D β-Lactamases." Antibiotics 3, no. 3: 398-434.

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