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Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 398-434; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030398

Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

*  and
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance)
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The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.
Keywords: OXA; β-lactamase; plasmid; class D; carbapenemase; kinetics; crystal structure OXA; β-lactamase; plasmid; class D; carbapenemase; kinetics; crystal structure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Antunes, N.T.; Fisher, J.F. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases. Antibiotics 2014, 3, 398-434.

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