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Multidrug Efflux Systems in Helicobacter cinaedi
Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University/ 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8650, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2012; in revised form: 16 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Abstract: Helicobacter cinaedi causes infections, such as bacteremia, diarrhea and cellulitis in mainly immunocompromised patients. This pathogen is often problematic to analyze, and insufficient information is available, because it grows slowly and poorly in subculture under a microaerobic atmosphere. The first-choice therapy to eradicate H. cinaedi is antimicrobial chemotherapy; however, its use is linked to the development of resistance. Although we need to understand the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of H. cinaedi, unfortunately, sufficient genetic tools for H. cinaedi have not yet been developed. In July 2012, the complete sequence of H. cinaedi strain PAGU 611, isolated from a case of human bacteremia, was announced. This strain possesses multidrug efflux systems, intrinsic antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and typical mutations in gyrA and the 23S rRNA gene, which are involved in acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, respectively. Here, we compare the organization and properties of the efflux systems of H. cinaedi with the multidrug efflux systems identified in other bacteria.
Keywords: Helicobacter cinaedi; efflux; antimicrobial resistance
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Morita, Y.; Tomida, J.; Kawamura, Y. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Helicobacter cinaedi. Antibiotics 2012, 1, 29-43.
Morita Y, Tomida J, Kawamura Y. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Helicobacter cinaedi. Antibiotics. 2012; 1(1):29-43.
Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki. 2012. "Multidrug Efflux Systems in Helicobacter cinaedi." Antibiotics 1, no. 1: 29-43.