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Biosensors 2014, 4(4), 340-357; doi:10.3390/bios4040340

Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula

1
Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, UK
2
Atlas, Derby Court, Epsom Square, White Horse Business Park, Trowbridge, BA14 0XG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 3 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical and Biomedical Sensors)
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Abstract

The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical immunosensor; C-reactive protein; CRP; biomarker; serum electrochemical immunosensor; C-reactive protein; CRP; biomarker; serum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fakanya, W.M.; Tothill, I.E. Detection of the Inflammation Biomarker C-Reactive Protein in Serum Samples: Towards an Optimal Biosensor Formula. Biosensors 2014, 4, 340-357.

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