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The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans
Waikato Institute of Technology, Tristam Street, Private Bag 3036, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee 3030, VIC, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2012; in revised form: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Abstract: Angiotensin II is a key regulator of blood pressure and cardiovascular function in mammals. The conversion of angiotensin into its active form is carried out by Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE). The measurement of ACE concentration in plasma or serum, its enzymatic activity, and the correlation between an insertion/deletion (I/D) genetic polymorphism of the ACE gene have been investigated as possible indicators of superior athletic performance in humans. In this context, other indicators of superior adaptation to exercise resulting in better athletic performance (such as ventricular hypertrophy, VO2 max, and competition results) were mostly used to study the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and improved performance. Despite the fact that the existing literature presents little consensus, there is sufficient scientific evidence to warrant further investigation on the usage of ACE activity and the I/D ACE gene polymorphism as biomarkers of superior athletic performance in humans of specific ethnicities or in athletes involved in certain sports. In this sense, a biomarker would be a substance or genetic component that could be measured to provide a degree of certainty, or an indication, of the presence of a certain trait or characteristic that would be beneficial to the athlete’s performance. Difficulties in interpreting and comparing the results of scientific research on the topic arise from dissimilar protocols and variation in study design. This review aims to investigate the current literature on the use of ACE I/D polymorphism as a biomarker of performance in humans through the comparison of scientific publications.
Keywords: Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme; athletic performance; biomarker
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De Mello Costa, M.F.; Slocombe, R. The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans. Biosensors 2012, 2, 396-404.
De Mello Costa MF, Slocombe R. The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans. Biosensors. 2012; 2(4):396-404.
De Mello Costa, Maria Fernanda; Slocombe, Ron. 2012. "The Use of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme I/D Genetic Polymorphism as a Biomarker of Athletic Performance in Humans." Biosensors 2, no. 4: 396-404.