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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040253

Increased Level of α2,6-Sialylated Glycans on HaCaT Cells Induced by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles under UV Radiation

1
College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Systems Biology Theme, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Center for Human Genome Research, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
4
National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract

As one of the most widely used nanomaterials, the safety of nano-TiO2 for human beings has raised concern in recent years. Sialylation is an important glycosylation modification that plays a critical role in signal transduction, apoptosis, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of nano-TiO2 with different crystalline phases for human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and detect sialic acid alterations. The results showed that the mixture of crystalline P25 had the highest cytotoxicity and phototoxicity, followed by pure anatase A25, whereas pure rutile R25 had the lowest cytotoxicity and phototoxicity. A25 and R25 had no effects on the expression of sialic acids on HaCaT cells. However, HaCaT cells treated with P25 and UV showed an increased level of alterations in α2,6-linked sialic acids, which was related to the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nano-TiO2 and UV. The abundance of α2,6-linked sialic acids increased as ROS production increased, and vice versa. Antioxidant vitamin C (VC) reversed the abnormal expression of α2,6-linked sialic acids caused by nano-TiO2 and protected cells by eliminating ROS. These findings indicate that nano-TiO2 can alter the sialylation status of HaCaT cells under UV irradiation in a process mediated by ROS. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles; phototoxicity; sialic acids; reactive oxygen species; vitamin C TiO2 nanoparticles; phototoxicity; sialic acids; reactive oxygen species; vitamin C
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ren, Y.; Liu, X.; Geng, R.; Lu, Q.; Rao, R.; Tan, X.; Yang, X.; Liu, W. Increased Level of α2,6-Sialylated Glycans on HaCaT Cells Induced by Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles under UV Radiation. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 253.

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