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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040254

Preparation of Water Suspensions of Nanocalcite for Cultural Heritage Applications

1
Inter University National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM), Via Giusti 9, 50121 Florence, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi, 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
4
Institute of Arts and Technology/Conservation Sciences (IACTS), University of Applied Arts, Salzgries 14/1, A-1010 Wien, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract

The consolidation of degraded carbonate stone used in ancient monuments is an important topic for European cultural heritage conservation. The products most frequently used as consolidants are based on tetraalkoxy- or alkylalkoxy-silanes (in particular tetraethyl-orthosilicate, TEOS), resulting in the formation of relatively stable amorphous silica or alkylated (hydrophobic) silica inside the stone pores. However, silica is not chemically compatible with carbonate stones; in this respect, nanocalcite may be a suitable alternative. The present work concerns the preparation of water suspensions of calcite nanoparticles (CCNPs) by controlled carbonation of slaked lime using a pilot-scale reactor. A simplified design of experiment was adopted for product optimization. Calcite nanoparticles of narrow size distribution averaging about 30 nm were successfully obtained, the concentration of the interfacial agent and the size of CaO being the most critical parameters. Primary nanoparticle aggregation causing flocculation could be substantially prevented by the addition of polymeric dispersants. Copolymer-based dispersants were produced in situ by controlled heterophase polymerisation mediated by an amphiphilic macro-RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation transfer) agent. The stabilized CCNP aqueous dispersions were then applied on carbonate and silicate substrates; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)analysis of cross-sections allowed the evaluation of pore penetration, interfacial binding, and bridging (gap-filling) properties of these novel consolidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocalcite; heritage conservation; calcium carbonate; aqueous nanoparticles; consolidation nanocalcite; heritage conservation; calcium carbonate; aqueous nanoparticles; consolidation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Coltelli, M.-B.; Paolucci, D.; Castelvetro, V.; Bianchi, S.; Mascha, E.; Panariello, L.; Pesce, C.; Weber, J.; Lazzeri, A. Preparation of Water Suspensions of Nanocalcite for Cultural Heritage Applications. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 254.

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