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Nanomaterials, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2012), Pages 1-91

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Research

Open AccessArticle Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Co-Condensed Gadolinium Chelates for Multimodal Imaging
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/nano2010001
Received: 7 November 2011 / Revised: 15 December 2011 / Accepted: 20 December 2011 / Published: 27 December 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) contrast agents have been synthesized using a co-condensation method to incorporate two different Gd3+ complexes at very high loadings (15.5–28.8 wt %). These MSN contrast agents, with an MCM-41 type pore structure, were characterized using a [...] Read more.
Several mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) contrast agents have been synthesized using a co-condensation method to incorporate two different Gd3+ complexes at very high loadings (15.5–28.8 wt %). These MSN contrast agents, with an MCM-41 type pore structure, were characterized using a variety of methods including SEM and TEM, nitrogen adsorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), direct current plasma (DCP) spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The magnetic resonance (MR) relaxivities of these contrast agents were determined using a 3 T MR scanner. The r1 relaxivities of these nanoparticles range from 4.1 to 8.4 mM−1s−1 on a per Gd basis. Additionally, the MSN particles were functionalized with an organic fluorophore and cancer cell targeting peptide to allow for demonstration of both the optical and MR contrast enhancing capabilities in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Molecules to Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Size and Size-Distribution Determination of Polystyrene Latex Nanoparticles in Aqueous Medium Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Asymmetrical Flow Field Flow Fractionation with Multi-Angle Light Scattering
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 15-30; doi:10.3390/nano2010015
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 17 December 2011 / Accepted: 26 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow [...] Read more.
Accurate determination of the intensity-average diameter of polystyrene latex (PS-latex) by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was carried out through extrapolation of both the concentration of PS-latex and the observed scattering angle. Intensity-average diameter and size distribution were reliably determined by asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AFFFF) using multi-angle light scattering (MALS) with consideration of band broadening in AFFFF separation. The intensity-average diameter determined by DLS and AFFFF-MALS agreed well within the estimated uncertainties, although the size distribution of PS-latex determined by DLS was less reliable in comparison with that determined by AFFFF-MALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Molecules to Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Alginate-Supported Ionic Liquid and Pd Catalysts
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 31-53; doi:10.3390/nano2010031
Received: 4 October 2011 / Revised: 9 December 2011 / Accepted: 29 December 2011 / Published: 11 January 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
New catalytic materials, based on palladium immobilized in ionic liquid supported on alginate, were elaborated. Alginate was associated with gelatin for the immobilization of ionic liquids (ILs) and the binding of palladium. These catalytic materials were designed in the form of highly [...] Read more.
New catalytic materials, based on palladium immobilized in ionic liquid supported on alginate, were elaborated. Alginate was associated with gelatin for the immobilization of ionic liquids (ILs) and the binding of palladium. These catalytic materials were designed in the form of highly porous monoliths (HPMs), in order to be used in a column reactor. The catalytic materials were tested for the hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) in the presence of formic acid as hydrogen donor. The different parameters for the elaboration of the catalytic materials were studied and their impact analyzed in terms of microstructures, palladium sorption properties and catalytic performances. The characteristics of the biopolymer (proportion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G) in the biopolymer defined by the M/G ratio), the concentration of the porogen agent, and the type of coagulating agent significantly influenced catalytic performances. The freezing temperature had a significant impact on structural properties, but hardly affected the catalytic rate. Cellulose fibers were incorporated as mechanical strengthener into the catalytic materials, and allowed to enhance mechanical properties and catalytic efficiency but required increasing the amount of hydrogen donor for catalysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Molecules to Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 54-64; doi:10.3390/nano2010054
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 4 January 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3–6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these [...] Read more.
Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3–6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these SnS nanoparticles is discussed. Diffuse reflectance study of SnS nanoparticles agrees with predictions from quantum confinement model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Molecules to Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Wettability of Y2O3: A Relative Analysis of Thermally Oxidized, Reactively Sputtered and Template Assisted Nanostructured Coatings
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 65-78; doi:10.3390/nano2010065
Received: 6 December 2011 / Revised: 17 January 2012 / Accepted: 21 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wettability of reactively sputtered Y2O3, thermally oxidized Y-Y2O3 and Cd-CdO template assisted Y2O3 coatings has been studied. The wettability of as-deposited Y2O3 coatings was determined by contact angle [...] Read more.
The wettability of reactively sputtered Y2O3, thermally oxidized Y-Y2O3 and Cd-CdO template assisted Y2O3 coatings has been studied. The wettability of as-deposited Y2O3 coatings was determined by contact angle measurements. The water contact angles for reactively sputtered, thermally oxidized and template assisted Y2O3 nanostructured coatings were 99°, 117° and 155°, respectively. The average surface roughness values of reactively sputtered, thermally oxidized and template assisted Y2O3 coatings were determined by using atomic force microscopy and the corresponding values were 3, 11 and 180 nm, respectively. The low contact angle of the sputter deposited Y2O3 and thermally oxidized Y-Y2O3 coatings is attributed to a densely packed nano-grain like microstructure without any void space, leading to low surface roughness. A water droplet on such surfaces is mostly in contact with a solid surface relative to a void space, leading to a hydrophobic surface (low contact angle). Surface roughness is a crucial factor for the fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface. For Y2O3 coatings, the surface roughness was improved by depositing a thin film of Y2O3 on the Cd-CdO template (average roughness = 178 nm), which resulted in a contact angle greater than 150°. The work of adhesion of water was very high for the reactively sputtered Y2O3 (54 mJ/m2) and thermally oxidized Y-Y2O3 coatings (43 mJ/m2) compared to the Cd-CdO template assisted Y2O3 coating (7 mJ/m2). Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Method for Characterization of Natural Zeolites and Organic Nanostructure Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(1), 79-91; doi:10.3390/nano2010079
Received: 21 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 24 February 2012 / Published: 5 March 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to study and develop an economical solution to environmental pollution in water, a wide variety of materials have been investigated. Natural zeolites emerge from that research as the best in class of this category. Zeolites are natural materials which are [...] Read more.
In order to study and develop an economical solution to environmental pollution in water, a wide variety of materials have been investigated. Natural zeolites emerge from that research as the best in class of this category. Zeolites are natural materials which are relatively abundant and non biodegradable, economical and serve to perform processes of environmental remediation. This paper contains a full description of a new method to characterize the superficial properties of natural zeolites of exotic provenience (Caribbean Islets) with atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM works with the simplicity of the optical microscope and the high resolution typical of a transmission electron microscope (TEM). If the sample is conductive, structural information of mesoporous material is obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), otherwise the sample has to be processed through the grafitation technique, but this procedure induces errors of topography. Therefore, the existing AFM method, to observe zeolite powders, is made in a liquid cell-head scanner. This work confirms that it is possible to use an ambient air-head scanner to obtain a new kind of microtopography. Once optimized, this new method will allow investigation of organic micelles, a very soft nanostructure of cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB), upon an inorganic surface such as natural zeolites. The data also demonstrated some correlation between SEM microphotographies and AFM 3D images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Nanomaterial Analysis)

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