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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jfb8030022

Metal Ion-Loaded Nanofibre Matrices for Calcification Inhibition in Polyurethane Implants

1
Australian Future Fibres Research and Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
2
School of Textile Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Abstract

Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg2+ ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe3+ ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed. In vitro calcification results indicated that a protective covering mesh of MI-doped PU can prevent calcification by preventing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. However, microstructure and mechanical characterisation revealed oxidative degradation effects from Fe3+ ions on the mechanical properties of the PU matrix. Therefore, from both a mechanical and anti-calcification effects point of view, Mg2+ ions are more promising candidates than Fe3+ ions. The in vitro MI release experiments demonstrated that PU microphase separation and the structural design of PU-MI matrices were important determinants of release kinetics. Increased phase separation in doped PU assisted in consistent long-term release of dissolved MIs from both hard and soft segments of the PU. The use of a composite-sandwich mesh design prevented an initial burst release which improved the late (>20 days) release rate of MIs from the matrix. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcification; magnesium; metal ion; Von Kossa method; Alizarin red S staining; anti-calcification; nanofibre matrix; hydroxyapatite calcification; magnesium; metal ion; Von Kossa method; Alizarin red S staining; anti-calcification; nanofibre matrix; hydroxyapatite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Singh, C.; Wang, X. Metal Ion-Loaded Nanofibre Matrices for Calcification Inhibition in Polyurethane Implants. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 22.

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