Special Issue "Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Francesco Puoci

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università della Calabria, Edificio Polifunzionale, Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
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Fax: +39 0984 493298
Interests: molecularly imprinted polymers; functional materials for biomedical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a special issue of high quality papers in Open Access form by the editorial board members, or those invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief.

Dr. Francesco Puoci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of PBS Treatment and PEI Coating Effects on Surface Morphology and Cellular Response of 3D-Printed Alginate Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 48; doi:10.3390/jfb8040048
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on the surface morphology and cellular response of the printed scaffolds. In our study, sterile alginate was prepared by means of the freeze-drying method and then, used to prepare the hydrogel for 3D printing into calcium chloride, forming 3D scaffolds. Scaffolds were treated with PBS for a time period of two days and seven days, respectively, and PEI coating; then they were seeded with Schwann cells (RSC96) for the examination of cellular response (proliferation and differentiation). In addition, swelling and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the treated scaffolds was evaluated, while their surface morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed significant changes in scaffold surface morphology due to degradation caused by the PBS treatment over time. Our cell proliferation assessment over seven days showed that a two-day PBS treatment could be more effective than seven-day PBS treatment for improving cell attachment and elongation. While PEI coating of alginate scaffolds seemed to contribute to cell growth, Schwann cells stayed round on the surface of alginate over the period of cell culture. In conclusion, PBS-treatment may offer the potential to induce surface physical cues due to degradation of alginate, which could improve cell attachment post cell-seeding of 3D-printed alginate scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/jfb8040047
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues.
[...] Read more.
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dental Composite Formulation Design with Bioactivity on Protein Adsorption Combined with Crack-Healing Capability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 40; doi:10.3390/jfb8030040
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover
[...] Read more.
Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover the load-bearing capability via microencapsulated triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxy ethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT). The bioactivity of the resulting MPC-microencapsulated TEGDMA-DHEPT was evaluated on protein adsorption through early bacterial attachment. Its mechanical properties were also investigated, including self-healing assessment. Microcapsules of poly (urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) were synthesized by incorporating a TEGDMA-DHEPT healing liquid. A set of composites that contained 7.5% of MPC, 10% of microcapsules, and without MPC/microcapsules were also prepared as controls. The two distinct characteristics of strong protein repellency and load-bearing recovery were achieved by the combined strategies. The novel dual composite with a combination of protein-repellent MPC and PUF microcapsules for restoring microcracks is a promising strategy for dental restorations to address the two main challenges of fracture and secondary caries. The new dual composite formulation design has the potential to improve the longevity of dental restorations significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Correlation and Comparison of Cortical and Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Morphology and Differentiation through the Use of Micro- and Nano-Topographies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 35; doi:10.3390/jfb8030035
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to
[...] Read more.
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies. In spite of topographical contact guidance, cell morphology was observed to be under the influence of regional priming, even after differentiation. This influence of regional priming was further reflected in the correlations between the morphological properties and the differentiation efficiency of the cells. For example, neuronal differentiation efficiency of cortical neural progenitors showed a negative correlation with the number of neurites per neuron, but hippocampal neural progenitors showed a positive correlation. Correlations of morphological parameters and differentiation were further enhanced on gratings, which are known to promote neuronal differentiation. Thus, the neurogenecity and morphology of neural progenitors is highly responsive to certain topographies and is committed early on in development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Collective Migration of Lens Epithelial Cell Induced by Differential Microscale Groove Patterns
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 34; doi:10.3390/jfb8030034
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
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Abstract
Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS
[...] Read more.
Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS substrates were prepared through soft lithography using Si molds fabricated by photolithography. Afterwards, we observed the collective cell migration of human lens epithelial cells (B-3) on various groove/ridge patterns and evaluated the migration rate to determine the pattern most effective in slowing down the cell sheet spreading speed. Microgroove patterns were variable, with widths of 3, 5, and 10 µm. After the seeding, time-lapse images were taken under controlled cell culturing conditions. Cell sheet borders were drawn in order to assess collective migration rate. Our experiments revealed that the topographical patterned surfaces could be applied to intraocular lenses to prevent or slow the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) by delaying the growth and spread of human lens epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 25; doi:10.3390/jfb8030025
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
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Abstract
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For
[...] Read more.
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Metal Ion-Loaded Nanofibre Matrices for Calcification Inhibition in Polyurethane Implants
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 22; doi:10.3390/jfb8030022
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s
[...] Read more.
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg2+ ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe3+ ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed. In vitro calcification results indicated that a protective covering mesh of MI-doped PU can prevent calcification by preventing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. However, microstructure and mechanical characterisation revealed oxidative degradation effects from Fe3+ ions on the mechanical properties of the PU matrix. Therefore, from both a mechanical and anti-calcification effects point of view, Mg2+ ions are more promising candidates than Fe3+ ions. The in vitro MI release experiments demonstrated that PU microphase separation and the structural design of PU-MI matrices were important determinants of release kinetics. Increased phase separation in doped PU assisted in consistent long-term release of dissolved MIs from both hard and soft segments of the PU. The use of a composite-sandwich mesh design prevented an initial burst release which improved the late (>20 days) release rate of MIs from the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin, Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate, Platelet-Rich Plasma and Resorbable Collagen on Soft Tissue Closure of Extraction Sites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 17; doi:10.3390/jfb8020017
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH),
[...] Read more.
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH), platelet-rich plasma-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRP-CSH), a resorbable collagen dressing (RCD), and no grafting material were compared in a randomized, controlled pilot study with a blinded parallel design (N = 23). Patients with a hopeless tooth scheduled for extraction were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Socket measurements were obtained immediately after extraction and treatment, as well as after 21 days. There was a significant decrease in the total epithelialized external surface area of the extraction sockets in each group at all time points. However, there were no significant differences in soft tissue closure (p > 0.05) at any time point and PRF-CSH or PRP-CSH did not provide any additional benefit to enhance the soft tissue closure of extraction sockets compared with either RCD or sites without graft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Osseointegration of a Modified Titanium Implant with Bound Phospho-Threonine: A Preliminary In Vivo Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 16; doi:10.3390/jfb8020016
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were
[...] Read more.
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the p-Thr binding surface and machined surface disks, and initial cell attachment was evaluated. p-Thr-binding and machined surface implants were tested in vivo by implantation into the femurs of three male New Zealand white rabbits, and the osseointegration was assessed by measurement of removal torque (RT) and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Initial cell attachment was greater for the p-Thr-binding than for the machined surface implant group (P < 0.05). In addition, RT and BIC values were higher for the p-Thr-binding surface than for the machined surface (P < 0.05). These results indicate that our implant with a p-Thr-binding surface can achieve enhanced osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 13; doi:10.3390/jfb8020013
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to
[...] Read more.
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician’s explanation of their treatment options (p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding (p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state (p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization (p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 7; doi:10.3390/jfb8010007
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract
Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled
[...] Read more.
Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jfb8010004
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
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Abstract
Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the
[...] Read more.
Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Debris Evaluation after Root Canal Shaping with Rotating and Reciprocating Single-File Systems
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(4), 28; doi:10.3390/jfb7040028
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules along the walls of each sample; Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups and shaped with OneShape (OS), F6 SkyTaper (F6), WaveOne (WO) and Reciproc and irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Root canal walls were analyzed by SEM at a standard magnification of 2500×. The presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules at the coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were estimated using a five-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05; The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for debris score showed significant differences among the NiTi systems (P < 0.05). The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that reciprocating systems presented significantly higher score values than rotating files. The same results were assessed considering the smear layer scores. ANOVA confirmed that the apical third of the canal maintained a higher quantity of debris and smear layer after preparation of all the samples; Single-use NiTi systems used in continuous rotation appeared to be more effective than reciprocating instruments in leaving clean walls. The reciprocating systems produced more debris and smear layer than rotating instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 44; doi:10.3390/jfb8040044
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used
[...] Read more.
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 19; doi:10.3390/jfb8020019
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and
[...] Read more.
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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Open AccessReview Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 6; doi:10.3390/jfb8010006
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for
[...] Read more.
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
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