Special Issue "Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Francesco Puoci

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università della Calabria, Edificio Polifunzionale, Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39 0984 493298
Interests: molecularly imprinted polymers; functional materials for biomedical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a special issue of high quality papers in Open Access form by the editorial board members, or those invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief.

Dr. Francesco Puoci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (29 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-29
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Short-Term Degradation of Bi-Component Electrospun Fibers: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluations via AFM Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020027
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
PDF Full-text (6860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospun polymeric fibers are currently used as 3D models for in vitro applications in biomedical areas, i.e., tissue engineering, cell and drug delivery. The high customization of the electrospinning process offers numerous opportunities to manipulate and control surface area, fiber diameter, and fiber
[...] Read more.
Electrospun polymeric fibers are currently used as 3D models for in vitro applications in biomedical areas, i.e., tissue engineering, cell and drug delivery. The high customization of the electrospinning process offers numerous opportunities to manipulate and control surface area, fiber diameter, and fiber density to evaluate the response of cells under different morphological and/or biochemical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate—via atomic force microscopy (AFM)—the chemical and morphological changes in bi-component electrospun fibers (BEFs) during the in vitro degradation process using a biological medium. BEFs were fabricated by electrospinning a mixture of synthetic-polycaprolactone (PCL)-and natural polymers (gelatin) into a binary solution. During the hydrolytic degradation of protein, no significant remarkable effects were recognized in terms of fiber integrity. However, increases in surface roughness as well as a decrease in fiber diameter as a function of the degradation conditions were detected. We suggest that morphological and chemical changes due to the local release of gelatin positively influence cell behavior in culture, in terms of cell adhesion and spreading, thus working to mimic the native microenvironment of natural tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010015
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
PDF Full-text (5565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending) and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effect of Cryopreserved Human Placental Tissues on Biofilm Formation of Wound-Associated Pathogens
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010003
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and
[...] Read more.
Biofilm, a community of bacteria, is tolerant to antimicrobial agents and ubiquitous in chronic wounds. In a chronic DFU (Diabetic Foot Ulcers) clinical trial, the use of a human cryopreserved viable amniotic membrane (CVAM) resulted in a high rate of wound closure and reduction of wound-related infections. Our previous study demonstrated that CVAM possesses intrinsic antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of wound-associated bacteria under planktonic culture conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of CVAM and cryopreserved viable umbilical tissue (CVUT) on biofilm formation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, the two most prominent pathogens associated with chronic wounds. Firstly, we showed that, like CVAM, CVUT released antibacterial activity against multiple bacterial pathogens and the devitalization of CVUT reduced its antibacterial activity. The biofilm formation was then measured using a high throughput method and an ex vivo porcine dermal tissue model. We demonstrate that the formation of biofilm was significantly reduced in the presence of CVAM- or CVUT-derived conditioned media compared to control assay medium. The formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm on CVAM-conditioned medium saturated porcine dermal tissues was reduced 97% compared with the biofilm formation on the control medium saturated dermal tissues. The formation of S. auerus biofilm on CVUT-conditioned medium saturated dermal tissues was reduced 72% compared with the biofilm formation on the control tissues. This study is the first to show that human cryopreserved viable placental tissues release factors that inhibit biofilm formation. Our results provide an explanation for the in vivo observation of their ability to support wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of PBS Treatment and PEI Coating Effects on Surface Morphology and Cellular Response of 3D-Printed Alginate Scaffolds
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8040048
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
PDF Full-text (9524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology for the fabrication of scaffolds to repair/replace damaged tissue/organs in tissue engineering. This paper presents our study on 3D printed alginate scaffolds treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating and their impacts on the surface morphology and cellular response of the printed scaffolds. In our study, sterile alginate was prepared by means of the freeze-drying method and then, used to prepare the hydrogel for 3D printing into calcium chloride, forming 3D scaffolds. Scaffolds were treated with PBS for a time period of two days and seven days, respectively, and PEI coating; then they were seeded with Schwann cells (RSC96) for the examination of cellular response (proliferation and differentiation). In addition, swelling and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the treated scaffolds was evaluated, while their surface morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed significant changes in scaffold surface morphology due to degradation caused by the PBS treatment over time. Our cell proliferation assessment over seven days showed that a two-day PBS treatment could be more effective than seven-day PBS treatment for improving cell attachment and elongation. While PEI coating of alginate scaffolds seemed to contribute to cell growth, Schwann cells stayed round on the surface of alginate over the period of cell culture. In conclusion, PBS-treatment may offer the potential to induce surface physical cues due to degradation of alginate, which could improve cell attachment post cell-seeding of 3D-printed alginate scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optimization of Bicomponent Electrospun Fibers for Therapeutic Use: Post-Treatments to Improve Chemical and Biological Stability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8040047
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues.
[...] Read more.
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration. However, these proteins are rapidly digested by enzymes, locally produced by many different cell types, both in vitro and in vivo, with significant drawbacks in the control of molecular release. Hence, we have investigated three post-processing strategies based on the use of different crosslinking agents—(1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride) (EDC), glyceraldehyde (GC), and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE)—to delay the dissolution time of gelatin macromolecules from bicomponent fibers. All of the qualitative (i.e., SEM, TGA) and quantitative (i.e., Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays) morphological/chemical analyses as well as biocompatibility assays indicate that EDC crosslinking improves the chemical stability of bicomponent fibers at 37 °C and provides a more efficient encapsulation and controlled sustained release of drug, thus resulting in the best post-treatment to design bio-inspired fibrous platforms for the extended in vitro release of drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dental Composite Formulation Design with Bioactivity on Protein Adsorption Combined with Crack-Healing Capability
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030040
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover
[...] Read more.
Fracture and secondary caries are the primary reasons for the failure of dental restorations. To face this omnipresent problem, we report the formulation design and synthesis of a protein-resistant dental composite composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) that also can self-repair damage and recover the load-bearing capability via microencapsulated triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and N,N-dihydroxy ethyl-p-toluidine (DHEPT). The bioactivity of the resulting MPC-microencapsulated TEGDMA-DHEPT was evaluated on protein adsorption through early bacterial attachment. Its mechanical properties were also investigated, including self-healing assessment. Microcapsules of poly (urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) were synthesized by incorporating a TEGDMA-DHEPT healing liquid. A set of composites that contained 7.5% of MPC, 10% of microcapsules, and without MPC/microcapsules were also prepared as controls. The two distinct characteristics of strong protein repellency and load-bearing recovery were achieved by the combined strategies. The novel dual composite with a combination of protein-repellent MPC and PUF microcapsules for restoring microcracks is a promising strategy for dental restorations to address the two main challenges of fracture and secondary caries. The new dual composite formulation design has the potential to improve the longevity of dental restorations significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Correlation and Comparison of Cortical and Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Morphology and Differentiation through the Use of Micro- and Nano-Topographies
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030035
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to
[...] Read more.
Neuronal morphology and differentiation have been extensively studied on topography. The differentiation potential of neural progenitors has been shown to be influenced by brain region, developmental stage, and time in culture. However, the neurogenecity and morphology of different neural progenitors in response to topography have not been quantitatively compared. In this study, the correlation between the morphology and differentiation of hippocampal and cortical neural progenitor cells was explored. The morphology of differentiated neural progenitors was quantified on an array of topographies. In spite of topographical contact guidance, cell morphology was observed to be under the influence of regional priming, even after differentiation. This influence of regional priming was further reflected in the correlations between the morphological properties and the differentiation efficiency of the cells. For example, neuronal differentiation efficiency of cortical neural progenitors showed a negative correlation with the number of neurites per neuron, but hippocampal neural progenitors showed a positive correlation. Correlations of morphological parameters and differentiation were further enhanced on gratings, which are known to promote neuronal differentiation. Thus, the neurogenecity and morphology of neural progenitors is highly responsive to certain topographies and is committed early on in development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Collective Migration of Lens Epithelial Cell Induced by Differential Microscale Groove Patterns
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030034
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS
[...] Read more.
Herein, a micro-patterned cell adhesive surface is prepared for the future design of medical devices. One-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterns were prepared by a photolithography process. We investigated the effect of microscale topographical patterned surfaces on decreasing the collective cell migration rate. PDMS substrates were prepared through soft lithography using Si molds fabricated by photolithography. Afterwards, we observed the collective cell migration of human lens epithelial cells (B-3) on various groove/ridge patterns and evaluated the migration rate to determine the pattern most effective in slowing down the cell sheet spreading speed. Microgroove patterns were variable, with widths of 3, 5, and 10 µm. After the seeding, time-lapse images were taken under controlled cell culturing conditions. Cell sheet borders were drawn in order to assess collective migration rate. Our experiments revealed that the topographical patterned surfaces could be applied to intraocular lenses to prevent or slow the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) by delaying the growth and spread of human lens epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Injectable Glass Polyalkenoate Cement Engineered for Fracture Fixation and Stabilization
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030025
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For
[...] Read more.
Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential as bio-adhesives due to their ease of application, appropriate mechanical properties, radiopacity and chemical adhesion to bone. Aluminium (Al)-free GPCs have been discussed in the literature, but have proven difficult to balance injectability with mechanical integrity. For example, zinc-based, Al-free GPCs reported compressive strengths of 63 MPa, but set in under 2 min. Here, the authors design injectable GPCs (IGPCs) based on zinc-containing, Al-free silicate compositions containing GeO2, substituted for ZnO at 3% increments through the series. The setting reactions, injectability and mechanical properties of these GPCs were evaluated using both a hand-mix (h) technique, using a spatula for sample preparation and application and an injection (i) technique, using a 16-gauge needle, post mixing, for application. GPCs ability to act as a carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also evaluated. Germanium (Ge) and BSA containing IGPCs were produced and reported to have working times between 26 and 44 min and setting times between 37 and 55 min; the extended handling properties being as a result of less Ge. The incorporation of BSA into the cement had no effect on the handling and mechanical properties, but the latter were found to have increased compression strength with the addition of Ge from between 27 and 37 MPa after 30 days maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Metal Ion-Loaded Nanofibre Matrices for Calcification Inhibition in Polyurethane Implants
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8030022
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
PDF Full-text (3888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s
[...] Read more.
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg2+ ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe3+ ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed. In vitro calcification results indicated that a protective covering mesh of MI-doped PU can prevent calcification by preventing hydroxyapatite crystal growth. However, microstructure and mechanical characterisation revealed oxidative degradation effects from Fe3+ ions on the mechanical properties of the PU matrix. Therefore, from both a mechanical and anti-calcification effects point of view, Mg2+ ions are more promising candidates than Fe3+ ions. The in vitro MI release experiments demonstrated that PU microphase separation and the structural design of PU-MI matrices were important determinants of release kinetics. Increased phase separation in doped PU assisted in consistent long-term release of dissolved MIs from both hard and soft segments of the PU. The use of a composite-sandwich mesh design prevented an initial burst release which improved the late (>20 days) release rate of MIs from the matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin, Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate, Platelet-Rich Plasma and Resorbable Collagen on Soft Tissue Closure of Extraction Sites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8020017
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH),
[...] Read more.
Rapid and complete soft tissue healing after tooth extraction minimizes surgical complications and facilitates subsequent implant placement. We used four treatment methods and assessed changes in soft tissue socket closure following tooth extraction in humans. The effects of platelet-rich fibrin-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRF-CSH), platelet-rich plasma-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (PRP-CSH), a resorbable collagen dressing (RCD), and no grafting material were compared in a randomized, controlled pilot study with a blinded parallel design (N = 23). Patients with a hopeless tooth scheduled for extraction were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Socket measurements were obtained immediately after extraction and treatment, as well as after 21 days. There was a significant decrease in the total epithelialized external surface area of the extraction sockets in each group at all time points. However, there were no significant differences in soft tissue closure (p > 0.05) at any time point and PRF-CSH or PRP-CSH did not provide any additional benefit to enhance the soft tissue closure of extraction sockets compared with either RCD or sites without graft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Enhanced Osseointegration of a Modified Titanium Implant with Bound Phospho-Threonine: A Preliminary In Vivo Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8020016
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were
[...] Read more.
Implant surface topography is a key factor in achieving osseointegration. l-Threonine can be chemically and stably bonded to titanium surfaces by phosphorylation. This study investigated the degree of in vivo osseointegration of an implant with a novel o-phospho-l-threonine (p-Thr)-binding surface. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the p-Thr binding surface and machined surface disks, and initial cell attachment was evaluated. p-Thr-binding and machined surface implants were tested in vivo by implantation into the femurs of three male New Zealand white rabbits, and the osseointegration was assessed by measurement of removal torque (RT) and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Initial cell attachment was greater for the p-Thr-binding than for the machined surface implant group (P < 0.05). In addition, RT and BIC values were higher for the p-Thr-binding surface than for the machined surface (P < 0.05). These results indicate that our implant with a p-Thr-binding surface can achieve enhanced osseointegration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8020013
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to
[...] Read more.
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician’s explanation of their treatment options (p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding (p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state (p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization (p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8010007
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled
[...] Read more.
Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8010004
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the
[...] Read more.
Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Debris Evaluation after Root Canal Shaping with Rotating and Reciprocating Single-File Systems
J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb7040028
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules along the walls of each sample; Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups and shaped with OneShape (OS), F6 SkyTaper (F6), WaveOne (WO) and Reciproc and irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Root canal walls were analyzed by SEM at a standard magnification of 2500×. The presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules at the coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were estimated using a five-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05; The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for debris score showed significant differences among the NiTi systems (P < 0.05). The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that reciprocating systems presented significantly higher score values than rotating files. The same results were assessed considering the smear layer scores. ANOVA confirmed that the apical third of the canal maintained a higher quantity of debris and smear layer after preparation of all the samples; Single-use NiTi systems used in continuous rotation appeared to be more effective than reciprocating instruments in leaving clean walls. The reciprocating systems produced more debris and smear layer than rotating instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Honey, Wound Repair and Regenerative Medicine
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020034
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Honey possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and other properties that are useful for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Furthermore, honey has been used for millennia in folk medicine. The misuse of antibiotics has again boosted the use of honey in regenerative medicine. The multifaceted properties
[...] Read more.
Honey possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and other properties that are useful for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Furthermore, honey has been used for millennia in folk medicine. The misuse of antibiotics has again boosted the use of honey in regenerative medicine. The multifaceted properties of honey could possibly be exploited for scaffold applications in tissue healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Open AccessReview Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020031
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according
[...] Read more.
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Critical Review on Metallic Glasses as Structural Materials for Cardiovascular Stent Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010019
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
PDF Full-text (6242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functional and mechanical properties of novel biomaterials must be carefully evaluated to guarantee long-term biocompatibility and structural integrity of implantable medical devices. Owing to the combination of metallic bonding and amorphous structure, metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit extraordinary properties superior to conventional crystalline metallic
[...] Read more.
Functional and mechanical properties of novel biomaterials must be carefully evaluated to guarantee long-term biocompatibility and structural integrity of implantable medical devices. Owing to the combination of metallic bonding and amorphous structure, metallic glasses (MGs) exhibit extraordinary properties superior to conventional crystalline metallic alloys, placing them at the frontier of biomaterials research. MGs have potential to improve corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, strength, and longevity of biomedical implants, and hence are promising materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Nevertheless, while functional properties and biocompatibility of MGs have been widely investigated and validated, a solid understanding of their mechanical performance during different stages in stent applications is still scarce. In this review, we provide a brief, yet comprehensive account on the general aspects of MGs regarding their formation, processing, structure, mechanical, and chemical properties. More specifically, we focus on the additive manufacturing (AM) of MGs, their outstanding high strength and resilience, and their fatigue properties. The interconnection between processing, structure and mechanical behaviour of MGs is highlighted. We further review the main categories of cardiovascular stents, the required mechanical properties of each category, and the conventional materials have been using to address these requirements. Then, we bridge between the mechanical requirements of stents, structural properties of MGs, and the corresponding stent design caveats. In particular, we discuss our recent findings on the feasibility of using MGs in self-expandable stents where our results show that a metallic glass based aortic stent can be crimped without mechanical failure. We further justify the safe deployment of this stent in human descending aorta. It is our intent with this review to inspire biodevice developers toward the realization of MG-based stents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Modulation of Osteoclast Interactions with Orthopaedic Biomaterials
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010018
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterial integration in bone depends on bone remodelling at the bone-implant interface. Optimal balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts is crucial for successful implantation, especially in orthopaedic surgery. Most studies examined osteoblast differentiation on biomaterials, yet few research
[...] Read more.
Biomaterial integration in bone depends on bone remodelling at the bone-implant interface. Optimal balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts is crucial for successful implantation, especially in orthopaedic surgery. Most studies examined osteoblast differentiation on biomaterials, yet few research has been conducted to explore the effect of different orthopaedic implants on osteoclast development. This review covers, in detail, the biology of osteoclasts, in vitro models of osteoclasts, and modulation of osteoclast activity by different implant surfaces, bio-ceramics, and polymers. Studies show that surface topography influence osteoclastogenesis. For instance, metal implants with rough surfaces enhanced osteoclast activity, while smooth surfaces resulted in poor osteoclast differentiation. In addition, surface modification of implants with anti-osteoporotic drug further decreased osteoclast activity. In bioceramics, osteoclast development depended on different chemical compositions. Strontium-incorporated bioceramics decreased osteoclast development, whereas higher concentrations of silica enhanced osteoclast activity. Differences between natural and synthetic polymers also modulated osteoclastogenesis. Physiochemical properties of implants affect osteoclast activity. Hence, understanding osteoclast biology and its response to the natural microarchitecture of bone are indispensable to design suitable implant interfaces and scaffolds, which will stimulate osteoclasts in ways similar to that of native bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Carbon Nano-Allotrope/Magnetic Nanoparticle Hybrid Nanomaterials as T2 Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010016
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
PDF Full-text (1207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials
[...] Read more.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most powerful tool for deep penetration and high-quality 3D imaging of tissues with anatomical details. However, the sensitivity of the MRI technique is not as good as that of the radioactive or optical imaging methods. Carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention in biomaterial research in recent decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, as well as excellent biological compatibility. Researchers have employed various carbon nano-allotropes to develop hybrid MRI contrast agents for improved sensitivity. This review summarizes the new research progresses in carbon-based hybrid MRI contrast agents, especially those reported in the past five years. The review will only focus on T2-weighted MRI agents and will be categorized by the different carbon allotrope types and magnetic components. Considering the strong trend in recent bio-nanotechnology research towards multifunctional diagnosis and therapy, carbon-based MRI contrast agents integrated with other imaging modalities or therapeutic functions are also covered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Hydrogels for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. Classification, Synthesis and Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010013
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been
[...] Read more.
Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been generally limited to the delivery of hydrophilic drugs. However, as many of the new drugs coming to market are hydrophobic in nature, new approaches for integrating hydrophobic drugs into hydrogels should be developed. This article discusses the possible new ways to incorporate hydrophobic drugs within hydrogel structures that have been developed through research. This review describes hydrogel-based systems for hydrophobic compound delivery included in the literature. The section covers all the main types of hydrogels, including physical hydrogels and chemical hydrogels. Additionally, reported applications of these hydrogels are described in the subsequent sections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Platelet Rich Plasma: New Insights for Cutaneous Wound Healing Management
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010010
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular
[...] Read more.
The overall increase of chronic degenerative diseases associated with ageing makes wound care a tremendous socioeconomic burden. Thus, there is a growing need to develop novel wound healing therapies to improve cutaneous wound healing. The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular due to the low-invasive procedures needed to apply them. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is gaining interest due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the wound healing process. The cytokines and growth factors forming PRP play a crucial role in the healing process. This article reviews the emerging field of skin wound regenerative therapies with particular emphasis on PRP and the role of growth factors in the wound healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview DNA-Based Single-Molecule Electronics: From Concept to Function
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010008
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
PDF Full-text (10869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability
[...] Read more.
Beyond being the repository of genetic information, DNA is playing an increasingly important role as a building block for molecular electronics. Its inherent structural and molecular recognition properties render it a leading candidate for molecular electronics applications. The structural stability, diversity and programmability of DNA provide overwhelming freedom for the design and fabrication of molecular-scale devices. In the past two decades DNA has therefore attracted inordinate amounts of attention in molecular electronics. This review gives a brief survey of recent experimental progress in DNA-based single-molecule electronics with special focus on single-molecule conductance and I–V characteristics of individual DNA molecules. Existing challenges and exciting future opportunities are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Methods to Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Low Quality (Type-IV) Bone: An Overview
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010007
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, dental implants have become more common treatment for replacing missing teeth and aim to improve chewing efficiency, physical health, and esthetics. The favorable clinical performance of dental implants has been attributed to their firm osseointegration, as introduced by Brånemark in 1965. Although the survival rate of dental implants over a 10-year observation has been reported to be higher than 90% in totally edentulous jaws, the clinical outcome of implant treatment is challenged in compromised (bone) conditions, as are frequently present in elderly people. The biomechanical characteristics of bone in aged patients do not offer proper stability to implants, being similar to type-IV bone (Lekholm & Zarb classification), in which a decreased clinical fixation of implants has been clearly demonstrated. However, the search for improved osseointegration has continued forward for the new evolution of modern dental implants. This represents a continuum of developments spanning more than 20 years of research on implant related-factors including surgical techniques, implant design, and surface properties. The methods to enhance osseointegration of dental implants in low quality (type-IV) bone are described in a general manner in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Calcium Phosphates as Delivery Systems for Bisphosphonates
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010006
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are
[...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most utilized drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis, and are usefully employed also for other pathologies characterized by abnormally high bone resorption, including bone metastases. Due to the great affinity of these drugs for calcium ions, calcium phosphates are ideal delivery systems for local administration of BPs to bone, which is aimed to avoid/limit the undesirable side effects of their prolonged systemic use. Direct synthesis in aqueous medium and chemisorptions from solution are the two main routes proposed to synthesize BP functionalized calcium phosphates. The present review overviews the information acquired through the studies on the interaction between bisphosphonate molecules and calcium phosphates. Moreover, particular attention is addressed to some important recent achievements on the applications of BP functionalized calcium phosphates as biomaterials for bone substitution/repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8040044
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used
[...] Read more.
Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Open AccessFeature PaperReview Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8020019
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and
[...] Read more.
Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb8010006
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for
[...] Read more.
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top