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J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7(3), 19; doi:10.3390/jfb7030019

Stimuli-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

1
Department of Interventional Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
3
Department of BioSciences, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
4
Graduate School for Biomedical Science, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sue Anne Chew
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials Approaches for Cancer Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [20686 KB, uploaded 27 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

An emerging concept is that cancers strongly depend on both internal and external signals for growth and invasion. In this review, we will discuss pathological and physical changes in the tumor microenvironment and how these changes can be exploited to design gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and therapy. These intrinsic changes include extracellular and intracellular pH, extracellular matrix enzymes, and glutathione concentration. External stimuli include the application of laser, ultrasound and X-ray. The biology behind these changes and the chemistry behind the responding mechanisms to these changes are reviewed. Examples of recent in vitro and in vivo studies are also presented, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gold nanoparticle; cancer; tumor; stimuli-responsiveness; extracellular pH; redox; extracellular matrix gold nanoparticle; cancer; tumor; stimuli-responsiveness; extracellular pH; redox; extracellular matrix
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, L.; Lu, L.; Qiao, Y.; Ravi, S.; Salatan, F.; Melancon, M.P. Stimuli-Responsive Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. J. Funct. Biomater. 2016, 7, 19.

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