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J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(2), 153-170; doi:10.3390/jfb6020153

Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoporous Niobia, and Nanotubular Tantala, Titania and Zirconia via Anodization

1
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, NY 11794, USA
3
School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonella Sola
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
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Abstract

Valve metals such as titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) that confer a stable oxide layer on their surfaces are commonly used as implant materials or alloying elements for titanium-based implants, due to their exceptional high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the nanostructures of tantala (Ta2O5), niobia (Nb2O5), zirconia (ZrO2) and titania (TiO2) in accordance to their roughness and wettability. Therefore, four kinds of metal oxide nanoporous and nanotubular Ta2O5, Nb2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 were fabricated via anodization. The nanosize distribution, morphology and the physical and chemical properties of the nanolayers and their surface energies and bioactivities were investigated using SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and 3D profilometer. It was found that the nanoporous Ta2O5 exhibited an irregular porous structure, high roughness and high surface energy as compared to bare tantalum metal; and exhibited the most superior bioactivity after annealing among the four kinds of nanoporous structures. The nanoporous Nb2O5 showed a uniform porous structure and low roughness, but no bioactivity before annealing. Overall, the nanoporous and nanotubular layers of Ta2O5, Nb2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 demonstrated promising potential for enhanced bioactivity to improve their biomedical application alone or to improve the usage in other biocompatible metal implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotube; tantala; niobia; zirconia; titania; wettability; roughness; hydroxyapatite nanotube; tantala; niobia; zirconia; titania; wettability; roughness; hydroxyapatite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Minagar, S.; Berndt, C.C.; Wen, C. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoporous Niobia, and Nanotubular Tantala, Titania and Zirconia via Anodization. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 153-170.

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J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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