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Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers
Joanneum Research Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Straße 94, Niklasdorf A-8712, Austria
Grenoble Institute of Technology, Parvis Louis Néel, 38000 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Reymonta 25, Krakow 30-059, Poland
Department of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 23, Kraków 31-501, Poland
Faculty of Technical and Environmental Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Franz-Fritsch-Straße 11, Wels 4600, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2012; in revised form: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 11 April 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
Abstract: Biocompatibility improvements for blood contacting materials are of increasing interest for implanted devices and interventional tools. The current study focuses on inorganic (titanium, titanium nitride, titanium oxide) as well as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating materials on polymer surfaces (thermoplastic polyurethane), deposited by magnetron sputtering und pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. DLC was used pure (a-C:H) as well as doped with silicon, titanium, and nitrogen + titanium (a-C:H:Si, a-C:H:Ti, a-C:H:N:Ti). In-vitro testing of the hemocompatibility requires mandatory dynamic test conditions to simulate in-vivo conditions, e.g., realized by a cone-and-plate analyzer. In such tests, titanium- and nitrogen-doped DLC and titanium nitride were found to be optimally anti-thrombotic and better than state-of-the-art polyurethane polymers. This is mainly due to the low tendency to platelet microparticle formation, a high content of remaining platelets in the whole blood after testing and low concentration of platelet activation and aggregation markers. Comparing this result to shear-flow induced cell motility tests with e.g., Dictostelium discoideum cell model organism reveals similar tendencies for the investigated materials.
Keywords: inorganic thin film materials; diamond-like carbon; dynamic blood testing; blood
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Lackner, J.M.; Waldhauser, W.; Hartmann, P.; Bruckert, F.; Weidenhaupt, M.; Major, R.; Sanak, M.; Wiesinger, M.; Heim, D. Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 283-297.
Lackner JM, Waldhauser W, Hartmann P, Bruckert F, Weidenhaupt M, Major R, Sanak M, Wiesinger M, Heim D. Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(2):283-297.
Lackner, Juergen M.; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Paul; Bruckert, Franz; Weidenhaupt, Marianne; Major, Roman; Sanak, Marek; Wiesinger, Martin; Heim, Daniel. 2012. "Hemocompatibility of Inorganic Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coatings on Thermoplastic Polyurethane Polymers." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 2: 283-297.