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Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications
Department of BioMechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Abstract: In this study, a porous oxide layer was formed on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by combining Ti magnetron sputtering and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim to produce a polymer-free drug carrier for drug eluting stent (DES) applications. The oxidation was performed galvanostatically in Na3PO4 electrolyte. The surface porosity, average pore size and roughness varied with PEO treatment duration, and under optimum conditions, the surface showed a porosity of 7.43%, an average pore size of 0.44 µm and a roughness (Ra) of 0.34 µm. The EDS analyses revealed that the porous layer consisted of Ti, O and P. The cross-sectional morphology evidenced a double-layer structure, with a porous titania surface and an un-oxidized dense Ti film towards the interface with 316L SS. After the PEO treatment, wettability and surface free energy increased significantly. The results of the present study confirm the feasibility of forming a porous TiO2 layer on stainless steel by combining sputtering technology and PEO. Further, the resultant porous oxide layer has the potential to be used as a drug carrier for DES, thus avoiding the complications associated with the polymer based carriers.
Keywords: drug eluting stent; plasma electrolytic oxidation; titanium oxide layer; stainless steel; surface porosity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L.E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J. Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 349-360.
Huan Z, Fratila-Apachitei LE, Apachitei I, Duszczyk J. Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(2):349-360.
Huan, Zhiguang; Fratila-Apachitei, Lidy E.; Apachitei, Iulian; Duszczyk, Jurek. 2012. "Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 2: 349-360.