Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(2), 349-360; doi:10.3390/jfb3020349
Article

Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications

, * ,
 and
Received: 20 March 2012; in revised form: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 27 April 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [965 KB, updated 14 May 2012; original version uploaded 11 May 2012]
Abstract: In this study, a porous oxide layer was formed on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by combining Ti magnetron sputtering and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with the aim to produce a polymer-free drug carrier for drug eluting stent (DES) applications. The oxidation was performed galvanostatically in Na3PO4 electrolyte. The surface porosity, average pore size and roughness varied with PEO treatment duration, and under optimum conditions, the surface showed a porosity of 7.43%, an average pore size of 0.44 µm and a roughness (Ra) of 0.34 µm. The EDS analyses revealed that the porous layer consisted of Ti, O and P. The cross-sectional morphology evidenced a double-layer structure, with a porous titania surface and an un-oxidized dense Ti film towards the interface with 316L SS. After the PEO treatment, wettability and surface free energy increased significantly. The results of the present study confirm the feasibility of forming a porous TiO2 layer on stainless steel by combining sputtering technology and PEO. Further, the resultant porous oxide layer has the potential to be used as a drug carrier for DES, thus avoiding the complications associated with the polymer based carriers.
Keywords: drug eluting stent; plasma electrolytic oxidation; titanium oxide layer; stainless steel; surface porosity drug eluting stent; plasma electrolytic oxidation; titanium oxide layer; stainless steel; surface porosity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L.E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J. Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications. J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3, 349-360.

AMA Style

Huan Z, Fratila-Apachitei LE, Apachitei I, Duszczyk J. Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2012; 3(2):349-360.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huan, Zhiguang; Fratila-Apachitei, Lidy E.; Apachitei, Iulian; Duszczyk, Jurek. 2012. "Characterization of Porous TiO2 Surfaces Formed on 316L Stainless Steel by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for Stent Applications." J. Funct. Biomater. 3, no. 2: 349-360.



J. Funct. Biomater. EISSN 2079-4983 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert