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J. Intell., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Spearman’s Hypothesis Tested on Black Adults: A Meta-Analysis
J. Intell. 2016, 4(2), 6; doi:10.3390/jintelligence4020006
Received: 29 December 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
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Abstract
Blacks generally score significantly lower on intelligence tests than Whites. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that there will be large Black/White differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity, and smaller Black/White differences on subtests of lower cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis tested on samples of [...] Read more.
Blacks generally score significantly lower on intelligence tests than Whites. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that there will be large Black/White differences on subtests of high cognitive complexity, and smaller Black/White differences on subtests of lower cognitive complexity. Spearman’s hypothesis tested on samples of Blacks and Whites has consistently been confirmed in many studies on children and adolescents, but there are many fewer studies on adults. We carried out a meta-analysis where we collected the existing tests of Spearman’s hypothesis on adults and collected additional datasets on Black and White adults that could be used to test Spearman’s hypothesis. Our meta-analytical search resulted in a total of 10 studies with a total of 15 datapoints, with participants numbering 251,085 Whites and 22,326 Blacks in total. For all these data points, the correlation between the loadings of a general factor that is manifested in individual differences on all mental tests, regardless of content (g) and standardized group differences was computed. The analysis of all 15 data points yields a mean vector correlation of 0.57. Spearman’s hypothesis is confirmed comparing Black and White adults. The differences between Black and White adults are strongly in line with those previously found for children and adults; however, because of lack of access to the original data, we could not test for measurement invariance. Full article

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