Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Information, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-43
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Comparison of T-Norms and S-Norms for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Numbers in Weight Adjustment for Neural Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030114
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (7741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments
[...] Read more.
A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments and a comparative research between traditional neural networks and the neural network with interval type-2 fuzzy number weights with different T-norms and S-norms are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach. In this research, the definitions of the lower and upper interval type-2 fuzzy numbers with random initial values are presented; this interval represents the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The proposed work is based on recent works that have considered the adaptation of weights using type-2 fuzzy numbers. To confirm the efficiency of the proposed method, a case of data prediction is applied, in particular for the Mackey-Glass time series (for τ = 17). Noise of Gaussian type was applied to the testing data of the Mackey-Glass time series to demonstrate that the neural network using a interval type-2 fuzzy numbers method achieves a lower susceptibility to noise than other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Volume Shocks around Announcements in the Chinese Stock Market: An Ex-Post Earnings-Information-Based Study of Speculative Behavior
Information 2017, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030112
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts
[...] Read more.
The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts proposed by Kim and Verrecchia, and Kandel and Pearson, and contrasting them with ex-post information from earnings releases, the paper provides findings on the speculative behavior of informed traders with a volume shock premium. The paper suggests that these methods may be further applied to investigating investors’ behavior in speculation, especially for the high-tech-company-based Second-Board Stock Market during announcement periods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cooperative Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access with Energy Harvesting
Information 2017, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030111
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
PDF Full-text (3030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we analyze the outage probability of an amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) model in multi-relay multiuser networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, relays in the considered network have no embedded energy supply; they need to rely on
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we analyze the outage probability of an amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) model in multi-relay multiuser networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, relays in the considered network have no embedded energy supply; they need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the source for their cooperative NOMA transmission. Based on this structure, a new relay selection scheme is proposed, considering both channel state information (CSI) and battery status of relays. Assuming each relay has infinite or finite energy storage for accumulating energy, we use the infinite or finite Markov chain to capture the evolution of relay batteries and certain simplified assumptions to reduce computational complexity of the Markov chain analysis. The approximate closed-form expressions for the outage probability of the proposed scheme are derived therefrom. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as relay number, energy harvesting threshold and battery size, on the performance are extensively investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Linguistic Neutrosophic Cubic Numbers and Their Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method
Information 2017, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030110
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN), including an internal LNCN and external LNCN. In LNCN, its uncertain linguistic neutrosophic
[...] Read more.
To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN), including an internal LNCN and external LNCN. In LNCN, its uncertain linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity uncertain linguistic variables, and its linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity linguistic variables to express their hybrid information. Then, we present the operational laws of LNCNs and the score, accuracy, and certain functions of LNCN for comparing/ranking LNCNs. Next, we propose a LNCN weighted arithmetic averaging (LNCNWAA) operator and a LNCN weighted geometric averaging (LNCNWGA) operator to aggregate linguistic neutrosophic cubic information and discuss their properties. Further, a multiple attribute decision-making method based on the LNCNWAA or LNCNWGA operator is developed under a linguistic neutrosophic cubic environment. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to indicate the application of the developed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Information Theory and Applications)
Open AccessReview Frequent Releases in Open Source Software: A Systematic Review
Information 2017, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030109
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Context: The need to accelerate software delivery, supporting faster time-to-market and frequent community developer/user feedback are issues that have led to relevant changes in software development practices. One example is the adoption of Rapid Release (RR) by several Open Source Software projects (OSS).
[...] Read more.
Context: The need to accelerate software delivery, supporting faster time-to-market and frequent community developer/user feedback are issues that have led to relevant changes in software development practices. One example is the adoption of Rapid Release (RR) by several Open Source Software projects (OSS). This raises the need to know how these projects deal with software release approaches. Goal: Identify the main characteristics of software release initiatives in OSS projects, the motivations behind their adoption, strategies applied, as well as advantages and difficulties found. Method: We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to reach the stated goal. Results: The SLR includes 33 publications from January 2006 to July 2016 and reveals nine advantages that characterize software release approaches in OSS projects; four challenge issues; three possibilities of implementation and two main motivations towards the adoption of RR; and finally four main strategies to implement it. Conclusion: This study provides an up-to-date and structured understanding of the software release approaches in the context of OSS projects based on findings systematically collected from a list of relevant references in the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG 2017))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Collecting Sensed Data with Opportunistic Networks: The Case of Contact Information Overhead
Information 2017, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030108
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data
[...] Read more.
The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data from sensors to their respective gateways for providing various Smart City services. Due to the distributed nature of the network, encounter-based routing protocols achieve acceptable throughput by requiring nodes to exchange and update contact information on an encounter basis. Unfortunately, sufficient insight into the associated overhead is lacking in the literature. Hence, we contribute by modelling contact information overhead and investigating its impact on OppNet routing, particularly in terms of data exchange success and energy consumption on portable handheld devices. Our findings reveal that the expected contact information overhead in Smart City scenarios significantly reduces data exchange success and increases energy consumption on portable handheld devices, thereby threatening the feasibility of the technology. We address this issue by proposing an algorithm that can be incorporated into encounter-based routing protocols to reduce contact information overhead without compromising throughput. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the average contact information overhead, increases throughput and reduces average energy consumption. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Bonferroni Mean Operators of Linguistic Neutrosophic Numbers and Their Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods
Information 2017, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030107
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNN) is presented by Fang and Ye in 2017, which can describe the truth, falsity, and indeterminacy linguistic information independently. In this paper, the LNN and the Bonferroni mean operator are merged together to propose a LNN normalized weighted Bonferroni
[...] Read more.
Linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNN) is presented by Fang and Ye in 2017, which can describe the truth, falsity, and indeterminacy linguistic information independently. In this paper, the LNN and the Bonferroni mean operator are merged together to propose a LNN normalized weighted Bonferroni mean (LNNNWBM) operator and a LNN normalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (LNNNWGBM) operator and the properties of these two operators are proved. Further, multi-attribute group decision methods are introduced based on the proposed LNNNWBM and LNNNWGBM operators, and then an example is provided to demonstrate the application and validity of the proposed methods. In addition, in order to consider the effect of the parameters p and q on the decision results, different pairs of parameter values are employed to verify the decision results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Arabic Handwritten Alphanumeric Character Recognition Using Very Deep Neural Network
Information 2017, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030105
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
PDF Full-text (15214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The traditional algorithms for recognizing handwritten alphanumeric characters are dependent on hand-designed features. In recent days, deep learning techniques have brought about new breakthrough technology for pattern recognition applications, especially for handwritten recognition. However, deeper networks are needed to deliver state-of-the-art results in
[...] Read more.
The traditional algorithms for recognizing handwritten alphanumeric characters are dependent on hand-designed features. In recent days, deep learning techniques have brought about new breakthrough technology for pattern recognition applications, especially for handwritten recognition. However, deeper networks are needed to deliver state-of-the-art results in this area. In this paper, inspired by the success of the very deep state-of-the-art VGGNet, we propose Alphanumeric VGG net for Arabic handwritten alphanumeric character recognition. Alphanumeric VGG net is constructed by thirteen convolutional layers, two max-pooling layers, and three fully-connected layers. The proposed model is fast and reliable, which improves the classification performance. Besides, this model has also reduced the overall complexity of VGGNet. We evaluated our approach on two benchmarking databases. We have achieved very promising results, with a validation accuracy of 99.66% for the ADBase database and 97.32% for the HACDB database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information
Information 2017, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030106
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP) plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of
[...] Read more.
The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP) plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs), triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs), and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs), are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs) into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Edge Detection Method Based on General Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Applied to Color Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030104
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (24536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new general type-2 fuzzy logic method for edge detection applied to color format images. The proposed algorithm combines the methodology based on the image gradients and general type-2 fuzzy logic theory to provide a powerful edge detection method. General
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a new general type-2 fuzzy logic method for edge detection applied to color format images. The proposed algorithm combines the methodology based on the image gradients and general type-2 fuzzy logic theory to provide a powerful edge detection method. General type-2 fuzzy inference systems are approximated using the α-planes approach. The edge detection method is tested on a database of color images with the idea of illustrating the advantage of applying the fuzzy edge detection approach on color images against grayscale format images, and also when the images are corrupted by noise. This paper compares the proposed method based on general type-2 fuzzy logic with other edge detection algorithms, such as ones based on type-1 and interval type-2 fuzzy systems. Simulation results show that edge detection based on a general type-2 fuzzy system outperforms the other methods because of its ability to handle the intrinsic uncertainty in this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Logic for Image Processing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel STDM Watermarking Using Visual Saliency-Based JND Model
Information 2017, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030103
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
PDF Full-text (813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The just noticeable distortion (JND) model plays an important role in measuring the visual visibility for spread transform dither modulation (STDM) watermarking. However, the existing JND model characterizes the suprathreshold distortions with an equal saliency level. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied
[...] Read more.
The just noticeable distortion (JND) model plays an important role in measuring the visual visibility for spread transform dither modulation (STDM) watermarking. However, the existing JND model characterizes the suprathreshold distortions with an equal saliency level. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied by psychologists and computer scientists during the last decade, where the distortions are more likely to be noticeable to any viewer. With this consideration, we proposed a novel STDM watermarking method for a monochrome image by exploiting a visual saliency-based JND model. In our proposed JND model, a simple VS model is employed as a feature to reflect the importance of a local region and compute the final JND map. Extensive experiments performed on the classic image databases demonstrate that the proposed watermarking scheme works better in terms of the robustness than other related methods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Robust Timetabling Model for a Metro Line with Passenger Activity Information
Information 2017, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030102
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
PDF Full-text (3743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Timetable design is crucial to the reliability of a metro service. In terms of the delays caused by passengers’ boarding and alighting behaviors during rush hours, the planned timetable for a metro line with high-frequency service tends to be difficult to implement. General
[...] Read more.
Timetable design is crucial to the reliability of a metro service. In terms of the delays caused by passengers’ boarding and alighting behaviors during rush hours, the planned timetable for a metro line with high-frequency service tends to be difficult to implement. General oversaturation events, rather than accidents or track damage, still have a significant impact on metro systems, so that trains are canceled and delayed. When the activity reality diverges from the real-time or historical information, it is imperative that dispatchers present a good solution during the planning stage in order to minimize the nuisance for passengers and reduce the crowding risk. This paper presents a robust timetabling model (RTM) for a metro line with passenger activity information, which takes into account congestion and buffer time adjustments. The main objective pursued by dispatchers in the model is the enhancement of punctuality while minimizing train delays by adjusting the buffer time. By explicitly taking the passenger activity information into account, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model was developed, and a genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to solve the model. Finally, numerical experiments based on the Batong line of the Beijing Metro were carried out, the results of which verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review
Information 2017, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030101
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern
[...] Read more.
In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate urban traffic congestions to achieve desirable objectives (e.g., delay minimization). Connected vehicle technology, as an emerging technology, is a mobile data platform that enables the real-time data exchange among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure. Although several reviews about traffic signal control or connected vehicles have been written, a systemic review of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has not been made. Twenty-six eligible studies searched from six databases constitute the review. A quality evaluation was established based on previous research instruments and applied to the current review. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing methods of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment and to compare the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. Further, a systematic framework on connected vehicle based adaptive traffic signal control is summarized to support the future research. Future research is needed to develop more efficient and generic adaptive traffic signal control methods in a connected vehicle environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Physical Layer Security and Optimal Multi-Time-Slot Power Allocation of SWIPT System Powered by Hybrid Energy
Information 2017, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030100
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
PDF Full-text (2472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form a hybrid energy, which provides power for the system to achieve green wireless transmission. The transfer process of SWIPT system is divided into multiple time slots. The renewable energy is harvested and stored in battery at each time slot. A multi-time-slot artificial noise-assisted transmission strategy is proposed to reduce the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of eavesdropping link. A power allocation algorithm based on multi-time-slot golden section is given, which performs one-dimensional search on the power ratio of artificial noise to determine the transmit power of source node. And then the allocation algorithm is utilized to dynamically configure the harvested renewable energy for each time slot. When the battery capacity is constant, the maximum renewable energy is being used to reduce the grid power consumption. Finally, the performances of proposed schemes are evaluated by simulations in terms of various tradeoffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Energy Harvesting for Future Wireless Communications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue on Mobile Systems, Mobile Networks, and Mobile Cloud: Security, Privacy, and Digital Forensics
Information 2017, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8030099
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of smartphones and mobile devices has become an indispensable part of everyone’s daily life and work [...] Full article
Back to Top