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Information 2017, 8(3), 108; doi:10.3390/info8030108

Collecting Sensed Data with Opportunistic Networks: The Case of Contact Information Overhead

1
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2
Fraunhofer-AICOS, Porto 4200-135, Portugal
3
PPGMO, Federal University of Goiás, Catalão 75704-020, GO, Brazil
4
INF, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, GO, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract

The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data from sensors to their respective gateways for providing various Smart City services. Due to the distributed nature of the network, encounter-based routing protocols achieve acceptable throughput by requiring nodes to exchange and update contact information on an encounter basis. Unfortunately, sufficient insight into the associated overhead is lacking in the literature. Hence, we contribute by modelling contact information overhead and investigating its impact on OppNet routing, particularly in terms of data exchange success and energy consumption on portable handheld devices. Our findings reveal that the expected contact information overhead in Smart City scenarios significantly reduces data exchange success and increases energy consumption on portable handheld devices, thereby threatening the feasibility of the technology. We address this issue by proposing an algorithm that can be incorporated into encounter-based routing protocols to reduce contact information overhead without compromising throughput. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the average contact information overhead, increases throughput and reduces average energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic networks; delay tolerant data; sensed data collection; routing; wireless sensors; Smart City; Internet of things; smartphones opportunistic networks; delay tolerant data; sensed data collection; routing; wireless sensors; Smart City; Internet of things; smartphones
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amah, T.E.; Kamat, M.; Bakar, K.A.; Rahman, S.O.A.; Mohammed, M.H.; Abali, A.M.; Moreira, W.; Oliveira, A. Collecting Sensed Data with Opportunistic Networks: The Case of Contact Information Overhead. Information 2017, 8, 108.

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