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Aspects of Spirituality in German and Polish Adolescents and Young Adults—Factorial Structure of the ASP Students’ Questionnaire
Religions 2014, 5(2), 459-476; doi:10.3390/rel5020459

Frequency of Spiritual/Religious Practices in Polish Patients with Chronic Diseases: Validation of the Polish Version of the SpREUK-P Questionnaire

1,* , 2,† and 2,3
1 Institute of Integrative Medicine, Professorship Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Witten/Herdecke University, Gerhard-Kienle-Weg 4, Herdecke 58313, Germany 2 Faculty of Pedagogy, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, ul. Dewajtis 5, Warsaw 01-815, Poland 3 Faculty for Religious Education, Catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Pater-Philipp-Jeningen-Platz 6, Eichstätt 85072, Germany Dr. Kazimierz Franczak, who started this study with us, but passed away during the process of data evaluation.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
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In order to measure a wide spectrum of organized and private religious, spiritual, existential and philosophical practices, the SpREUK-P (SpREUK is the German language acronym of “Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping with Illness”) questionnaire was developed as a generic instrument. To account for the fact that institutional religiosity declines, not only in Europe, and to explore the alternative use of various existing esoteric and spiritual resources, the instrument also addresses non-religious forms of spiritual practices. Previously, it was tested in a more secular context and was found to be of relevance for atheistic/agnostic individuals. Now we intended to apply the instrument to 275 Polish individuals with chronic diseases (100% Catholics, 74% women, mean age 56 ± 16 years). The factorial structure of the SpREUK-P’s Polish version was similar to the primary version, but lacked an exclusive “spiritual (mind-body) practices” subscale. Factor analysis revealed four main factors, which would explain 67% of the variance, i.e., religious practices (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90), humanistic practices (alpha = 0.87), existentialistic practices (alpha = 0.80) and gratitude/awe (alpha = 0.80). The correlation pattern underlines construct validity. Interestingly, in Polish individuals, existentialistic practices did not significantly differ between religious and non-religious individuals (nor between men and women), while all other forms of spiritual practices did differ significantly.
Keywords: spiritual practices; religiosity; questionnaire; validation; Poland; chronic diseases spiritual practices; religiosity; questionnaire; validation; Poland; chronic diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Büssing, A.; Franczak, K.; Surzykiewicz, J. Frequency of Spiritual/Religious Practices in Polish Patients with Chronic Diseases: Validation of the Polish Version of the SpREUK-P Questionnaire. Religions 2014, 5, 459-476.

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