Special Issue "Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity"

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A special issue of Religions (ISSN 2077-1444). This special issue belongs to the section "Health and Psychology of Religion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Arndt Büssing (Website)

Institute for Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany
Phone: +49-2330-623246
Fax: +49 2330623358
Interests: mind-body medicine approaches; spirituality and health; quality of life; coping; questionnaire development; intergrative medicine; clinical studies; health service research
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Christian Zwingmann

The Protestant University of Applied Sciences Rhineland-Westphalia-Lippe, Immanuel-Kant-Str. 18-20, D-44803 Bochum, Germany
Fax: +49 2118 87973144
Interests: psychology of religion; religion and health; assessment of spirituality/religiosity; health services research; rehabilitation research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are various instruments from distinct scholar disciplines (i.e., religious studies, chaplaincy, psychology, sociology, medicine, nursing etc.) which were developed to measure spirituality/religiosity either as a generic instrument or in the context of disease (coping). One may differentiate instruments which measure distinct attitudes and convictions, or measure the frequency of peoples´ engagement in distinct forms of spiritual/religious practices (intensity), and instruments which address the spiritual needs of patients. Moreover, these instruments may also differ with respect to their underlying concepts of spirituality and religiosity. From a theoretical point of view, it is sound to distinguish individuals´ religious from spiritual attitudes. While this differentiation is important in countries with a more secular and liberal background, this distinction is meaningless in countries with vital theistic beliefs. In fact some questionnaires address religiosity within the Judeo-Christian God concept, while other address spirituality with reference to more secular concepts of the Devine, or in the context of a pluralistic `search for meaning´. But what about Eastern Spirituality, what about the spirituality of agnostics and atheist? - It might be difficult to decide which instrument can be used for the unique research topic.

The aim of this special issue thus is to pay attention to well established instruments (and to update the knowledge), but also to describe the unique features and intentions of newly developed instruments, which may have potential to be used in larger studies to develop knowledge relevant to spiritual care and practice. This issue should become a resource of relevant instruments in the wide range of organized religiosity, the individual experience of the divine, and the open approach in the search for meaning and purpose in life.

High quality manuscripts are welcomed which briefly describe the background of questionnaire development, its unique features and intentions, and a sound description of items, scales, and validity measures.

Prof. Dr. Arndt Büssing
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Religions is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • questionnaires
  • research
  • spirituality
  • religiosity
  • well-being
  • quality of life

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Frequency of Spiritual/Religious Practices in Polish Patients with Chronic Diseases: Validation of the Polish Version of the SpREUK-P Questionnaire
Religions 2014, 5(2), 459-476; doi:10.3390/rel5020459
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to measure a wide spectrum of organized and private religious, spiritual, existential and philosophical practices, the SpREUK-P (SpREUK is the German language acronym of “Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping with Illness”) questionnaire was developed as a generic instrument. To account for the [...] Read more.
In order to measure a wide spectrum of organized and private religious, spiritual, existential and philosophical practices, the SpREUK-P (SpREUK is the German language acronym of “Spirituality/Religiosity and Coping with Illness”) questionnaire was developed as a generic instrument. To account for the fact that institutional religiosity declines, not only in Europe, and to explore the alternative use of various existing esoteric and spiritual resources, the instrument also addresses non-religious forms of spiritual practices. Previously, it was tested in a more secular context and was found to be of relevance for atheistic/agnostic individuals. Now we intended to apply the instrument to 275 Polish individuals with chronic diseases (100% Catholics, 74% women, mean age 56 ± 16 years). The factorial structure of the SpREUK-P’s Polish version was similar to the primary version, but lacked an exclusive “spiritual (mind-body) practices” subscale. Factor analysis revealed four main factors, which would explain 67% of the variance, i.e., religious practices (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90), humanistic practices (alpha = 0.87), existentialistic practices (alpha = 0.80) and gratitude/awe (alpha = 0.80). The correlation pattern underlines construct validity. Interestingly, in Polish individuals, existentialistic practices did not significantly differ between religious and non-religious individuals (nor between men and women), while all other forms of spiritual practices did differ significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Aspects of Spirituality in German and Polish Adolescents and Young Adults—Factorial Structure of the ASP Students’ Questionnaire
Religions 2014, 5(1), 109-125; doi:10.3390/rel5010109
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 14 February 2014
PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To cover a wider variety of specific aspects of spirituality, which are of relevance also in secular societies, the ASP (“Aspects of Spirituality”) questionnaire was developed. While it was used so far with healthy adults and with adolescents living in a secular [...] Read more.
To cover a wider variety of specific aspects of spirituality, which are of relevance also in secular societies, the ASP (“Aspects of Spirituality”) questionnaire was developed. While it was used so far with healthy adults and with adolescents living in a secular society, it was meanwhile used also with Polish students who were predominantly Catholic. Here we compare the factorial structure of the ASP questionnaire in a sample of 871 German (73% non-religious) and 1,017 Polish adolescents/young adults (50% non-religious despite their Catholic denomination). The factorial structure of the ASP questionnaire with its four scales Religious Orientation: Prayer/Trust in God, Search for Insight/Wisdom, Conscious interactions/Compassion, Transcendence Conviction, were similar in the sample of German students and in the Polish students. By means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) we were able to use the number of items of the ASP in its student version (ASP-Students). Overall, the instrument is suited to measure a wide variety of vital aspects of spirituality, both religious and secular forms of spirituality. As the instrument avoids exclusive language and operationalizes also non-formal aspects of spirituality in terms of relational consciousness, it is suited, not only for individuals with a skeptical or a-religious attitude, but also for religious individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS)
Religions 2012, 3(3), 710-724; doi:10.3390/rel3030710
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 8 August 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS) is a measure of the centrality, importance or salience of religious meanings in personality that has been applied yet in more than 100 studies in sociology of religion, psychology of religion and religious studies in 25 [...] Read more.
The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS) is a measure of the centrality, importance or salience of religious meanings in personality that has been applied yet in more than 100 studies in sociology of religion, psychology of religion and religious studies in 25 countries with in total more than 100,000 participants. It measures the general intensities of five theoretical defined core dimensions of religiosity. The dimensions of public practice, private practice, religious experience, ideology and the intellectual dimensions can together be considered as representative for the total of religious live. From a psychological perspective, the five core-dimensions can be seen as channels or modes in which personal religious constructs are shaped and activated. The activation of religious constructs in personality can be regarded as a valid measure of the degree of religiosity of an individual. The CRS thus derives from the five dimensional measures a combined measure of the centrality of religiosity which is suitable also for interreligious studies. The paper presents the theoretical basis and rationale of its construction with different versions of the CRS in 20 languages with norm values for 21 countries. Furthermore, the paper presents versions of different extension and describes specific modifications that were developed for studies with Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle The English Version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB-E): First Results from British College Students
Religions 2012, 3(3), 588-599; doi:10.3390/rel3030588
Received: 6 June 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 4 July 2012 / Published: 10 July 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years there has been a steadily growing interest of religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology; a variety of reliable and valid means of assessing the different facets of religiosity/spirituality have been developed. However, there is still some need for [...] Read more.
In recent years there has been a steadily growing interest of religious/spiritual issues in several areas of psychology; a variety of reliable and valid means of assessing the different facets of religiosity/spirituality have been developed. However, there is still some need for multidimensional approaches. With respect to the positive experience with the German version of the Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being, we developed an English version of this scale (MI-RSWB-E) in order to facilitate research in this budding field. The MI-RSWB-E was tested and validated on a sample of British college-students (n = 400). First, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the MI-RSWB-E were analysed. As a second step, MI-RSWB-E dimensions were related to a variety of indicators of personality and mental health. An in-depth analysis provided evidence in support of the psychometric quality of the MI-RSWB-E, and the ability of its proposed six-factor structure. The MI-RSWB-E dimensions were also found to be substantially related to personality factors as well as with indicators of subjective well-being and mental illness. In light of these findings the MI-RSWB-E could be considered as a suitable tool in the assessment of different facets of religiosity/spirituality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Measuring Mindfulness: A Rasch Analysis of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory
Religions 2011, 2(4), 693-706; doi:10.3390/rel2040693
Received: 31 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 December 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14) using a Rasch model approach in a cross-sectional design. The scale was administered to N = 130 British patients with different psychosomatic conditions. The scale [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14) using a Rasch model approach in a cross-sectional design. The scale was administered to N = 130 British patients with different psychosomatic conditions. The scale failed to show clear one-factoriality and item 13 did not fit the Rasch model. A two-factorial solution without item 13, however, appeared to fit well. The scale seemed to work equally well in different subgroups such as patients with or without mindfulness practice. However, some limitations of the validity of both the one-factorial and the two-factorial version of the scale were observed. Sizeable floor and ceiling effects limit the diagnostical use of the instrument. In summary, the study demonstrates that the two-factorial version of the FMI-13 shows acceptable approximation to Rasch requirements, but is in need of further improvement. The one-factorial solution did not fit well, and cannot be recommended for further use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments
Religions 2011, 2(3), 345-357; doi:10.3390/rel2030345
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 17 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a multitude of instruments for measuring religiosity/spirituality. Many of these questionnaires are used or even were developed in the context of studies about the connection between religiosity/spirituality and health. Thus, it seems crucial to note that measures can focus on [...] Read more.
There is a multitude of instruments for measuring religiosity/spirituality. Many of these questionnaires are used or even were developed in the context of studies about the connection between religiosity/spirituality and health. Thus, it seems crucial to note that measures can focus on quite different components along a hypothetical path between stressors and health. We present an instructive model which helps to identify these different components and allows the categorization of instruments of religiosity/spirituality according to their primary measurement intention: intensity/centrality, resources, needs, coping, and quality of life/well-being. Furthermore, we point out possibilities as to how religiosity and spirituality can be differentiated. We argue that the distinction between religiosity and spirituality is important in countries with a more secular background where a growing number of people identify themselves as “spiritual, but not religious”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
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Open AccessArticle A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses
Religions 2011, 2(3), 216-246; doi:10.3390/rel2030216
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 4 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to [...] Read more.
Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Spiritual Well-Being as a Component of Health-Related Quality of Life: The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp)
Religions 2011, 2(1), 77-94; doi:10.3390/rel2010077
Received: 22 November 2010 / Revised: 25 February 2011 / Accepted: 9 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-12) is a 12-item questionnaire that measures spiritual well-being in people with cancer and other chronic illnesses. Cancer patients, psychotherapists, and religious/spiritual experts provided input on the development of the items. It was validated [...] Read more.
The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-12) is a 12-item questionnaire that measures spiritual well-being in people with cancer and other chronic illnesses. Cancer patients, psychotherapists, and religious/spiritual experts provided input on the development of the items. It was validated with a large, ethnically diverse sample. It has been successfully used to assess spiritual well-being across a wide range of religious traditions, including those who identify themselves as “spiritual yet not religious.” Part of the larger FACIT measurement system that assesses multidimensional health related quality of life (HRQOL), the FACIT-Sp-12 has been translated and linguistically validated in 15 languages and has been used in dozens of studies examining the relationships among spiritual well-being, health, and adjustment to illness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle The Brief RCOPE: Current Psychometric Status of a Short Measure of Religious Coping
Religions 2011, 2(1), 51-76; doi:10.3390/rel2010051
Received: 20 December 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 22 February 2011
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Brief RCOPE is a 14-item measure of religious coping with major life stressors. As the most commonly used measure of religious coping in the literature, it has helped contribute to the growth of knowledge about the roles religion serves in the [...] Read more.
The Brief RCOPE is a 14-item measure of religious coping with major life stressors. As the most commonly used measure of religious coping in the literature, it has helped contribute to the growth of knowledge about the roles religion serves in the process of dealing with crisis, trauma, and transition. This paper reports on the development of the Brief RCOPE and its psychometric status. The scale developed out of Pargament’s (1997) program of theory and research on religious coping. The items themselves were generated through interviews with people experiencing major life stressors. Two overarching forms of religious coping, positive and negative, were articulated through factor analysis of the full RCOPE. Positive religious coping methods reflect a secure relationship with a transcendent force, a sense of spiritual connectedness with others, and a benevolent world view. Negative religious coping methods reflect underlying spiritual tensions and struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Empirical studies document the internal consistency of the positive and negative subscales of the Brief RCOPE. Moreover, empirical studies provide support for the construct validity, predictive validity, and incremental validity of the subscales. The Negative Religious Coping subscale, in particular, has emerged as a robust predictor of health-related outcomes. Initial evidence suggests that the Brief RCOPE may be useful as an evaluative tool that is sensitive to the effects of psychological interventions. In short, the Brief RCOPE has demonstrated its utility as an instrument for research and practice in the psychology of religion and spirituality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: Overview and Results
Religions 2011, 2(1), 29-50; doi:10.3390/rel2010029
Received: 29 December 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 10 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) is a 16-item self-report measure designed to assess ordinary experiences of connection with the transcendent in daily life. It includes constructs such as awe, gratitude, mercy, sense of connection with the transcendent and compassionate love. It [...] Read more.
The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) is a 16-item self-report measure designed to assess ordinary experiences of connection with the transcendent in daily life. It includes constructs such as awe, gratitude, mercy, sense of connection with the transcendent and compassionate love. It also includes measures of awareness of discernment/inspiration and a sense of deep inner peace. Originally developed for use in health studies, it has been increasingly used more widely in the social sciences, for program evaluation, and for examining changes in spiritual experiences over time. Also it has been used in counseling, addiction treatment settings, and religious organizations. It has been included in longitudinal health studies and in the U.S. General Social Survey which established random-sample population norms. It has publications on its psychometric validity in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, German and Mandarin Chinese. Translations have been made into twenty languages including Hindi, Hebrew and Arabic and the scale has been effectively used in a variety of cultures. The 16-item scale does not have a psychometrically representative shorter form although a 6-item adaptation has been used. The DSES was developed using extensive qualitative testing in a variety of groups, which has helped its capacity to be useful in a variety of settings. It was constructed to reflect an overlapping circle model of spirituality/religiousness and contains items that are more specifically theistic in nature, as well as items to tap the spiritual experience of those who are not comfortable with theistic language. The scale has been used in over 70 published studies. This paper will provide an overview of the scale itself, describe why it has proved useful, and discuss some studies using the scale. See http://www.dsescale.org/ for more information on the scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Development and Application of a Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM
Religions 2010, 1(1), 105-121; doi:10.3390/rel1010105
Received: 11 November 2010 / Revised: 29 November 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health and Well-Being was used as the theoretical base for the development of several spiritual well-being questionnaires, with progressive fine-tuning leading to the Spiritual Health And Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM). SHALOM comprises 20 items with five items [...] Read more.
The Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health and Well-Being was used as the theoretical base for the development of several spiritual well-being questionnaires, with progressive fine-tuning leading to the Spiritual Health And Life-Orientation Measure (SHALOM). SHALOM comprises 20 items with five items reflecting the quality of relationships of each person with themselves, other people, the environment and/or God, in the Personal, Communal, Environmental and Transcendental domains of spiritual well-being. SHALOM has undergone rigorous statistical testing in several languages. SHALOM has been used with school and university students, teachers, nurses, medical doctors, church-attenders, in industry and business settings, with abused women, troubled youth and alcoholics. SHALOM provides a unique way of assessing spiritual well-being as it compares each person’s ideals with their lived experiences, providing a measure of spiritual harmony or dissonance in each of the four domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases
Religions 2010, 1(1), 86-104; doi:10.3390/rel1010086
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 December 2010 / Published: 8 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Research has examined the connection between religiosity, spirituality (SpR) and health, and the potential of these variables to prevent, heal and cope with disease. Research indicated that participation in religious meetings or services was associated with a lower risk of developing [...] Read more.
Background: Research has examined the connection between religiosity, spirituality (SpR) and health, and the potential of these variables to prevent, heal and cope with disease. Research indicated that participation in religious meetings or services was associated with a lower risk of developing oral disease. We intended to test a Hebrew version of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire, which is reported to be a reliable and valid measure of distinctive issues of SpR, and to test its relevance in the context of oral illness among a Jewish population. Methods: In order to validate the SpREUK-Hebrew instrument, minor translational and cultural/religious adaptations were applied. Reliability and factor analyses were performed, using standard procedures, among 134 Jewish Israeli subjects (mean age 38.4 years). Results: Analysis of reliability for internal consistency demonstrated an intra-class correlation of Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 for the intrinsic religiosity/spiritual and the appraisal scales, and of 0.90 for the support through spirituality/religiosity scales. Inter reliability agreement by kappa ranged between 0.7 and 0.9. We were able to approve the previously described factorial structure, albeit with some unique characteristics in the Jewish population. Individuals´ time spent on spiritual activity correlated with the SpREUK scales. The instrument discriminated well between religious subgroups (i.e., ultra Orthodox, conventional religious and less-religious). Preliminary results indicate an association between measures of spirituality and oral health. Conclusions: The traditional and cultural adaptation of the tool was found to be appropriate. SpREUK-Hebrew was reliable and valid among a Jewish population. This method could therefore be employed in comparative studies among different cultural and religious backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessArticle Spirituality as a Resource to Rely on in Chronic Illness: The SpREUK Questionnaire
Religions 2010, 1(1), 9-17; doi:10.3390/rel1010009
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 13 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The SpREUK questionnaire (SpREUK is an acronym of the German translation of "Spiritual and Religious Attitudes in Dealing with Illness") was developed to investigate how patients with chronic diseases living in secular societies view the impact of spirituality in their dealing with [...] Read more.
The SpREUK questionnaire (SpREUK is an acronym of the German translation of "Spiritual and Religious Attitudes in Dealing with Illness") was developed to investigate how patients with chronic diseases living in secular societies view the impact of spirituality in their dealing with illness (in terms of reactive coping). The aim was to operationalize and quantify patients’ search for a transcendent source of support; their reliance on such a source of help; and whether they regard their illness as a chance for reflection and subsequent change of life and behavior. The contextual 15-item SpREUK has very good internal consistency estimates (ranging from 0.86 to 0.91), and differentiates three factors, i.e., Search (for Support/Access), Trust (in Higher Guidance/Source), and Reflection (Positive Interpretation of Disease). It avoids exclusive religious terminology and appears to be a good choice for assessing patients’ interest in spiritual/religious concerns, which is not biased for or against a particular religious commitment. This reliable and valid instrument is suited for patients in secular and also in religious societies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A Five-Item Measure for Use in Epidemological Studies
Religions 2010, 1(1), 78-85; doi:10.3390/rel1010078
Received: 21 September 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 1 December 2010
Cited by 83 | PDF Full-text (139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is need for a brief measure of religiosity that can be included in epidemiological surveys to examine relationships between religion and health outcomes. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a five-item measure of religious involvement, and was developed for use [...] Read more.
There is need for a brief measure of religiosity that can be included in epidemiological surveys to examine relationships between religion and health outcomes. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a five-item measure of religious involvement, and was developed for use in large cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies. The instrument assesses the three major dimensions of religiosity that were identified during a consensus meeting sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Those three dimensions are organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity (or subjective religiosity). The DUREL measures each of these dimensions by a separate “subscale”, and correlations with health outcomes should be analyzed by subscale in separate models. The overall scale has high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.91), high internal consistence (Cronbach’s alpha’s = 0.78–0.91), high convergent validity with other measures of religiosity (r’s = 0.71–0.86), and the factor structure of the DUREL has now been demonstrated and confirmed in separate samples by other independent investigative teams. The DUREL has been used in over 100 published studies conducted throughout the world and is available in 10 languages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
Open AccessReview The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire: Assessing Faith Engagement in a Brief and Nondenominational Manner
Religions 2010, 1(1), 3-8; doi:10.3390/rel1010003
Received: 21 September 2010 / Revised: 22 October 2010 / Accepted: 27 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (79 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire is a brief (10-item, or five-item short form version), reliable and valid self report measure assessing strength of religious faith and engagement suitable for use with multiple religious traditions, denominations, and perspectives. It has [...] Read more.
The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire is a brief (10-item, or five-item short form version), reliable and valid self report measure assessing strength of religious faith and engagement suitable for use with multiple religious traditions, denominations, and perspectives. It has been used in medical, student, psychiatric, substance abuse, and among general populations nationally and internationally and among multiple cultures and languages. Brief non denominational self report measures of religious and faith engagement that have demonstrated reliability and validity are not common but can have potential for general utility in both clinical and research settings. This article provides an overview of the scale and current research findings regarding its use in both research and clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)

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