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Religions 2014, 5(2), 477-501; doi:10.3390/rel5020477
Article

Post-9/11: Making Islam an American Religion

1,*  and 2
Received: 3 January 2014; in revised form: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Islam, Immigration, and Identity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [225 KB, uploaded 12 June 2014]
Abstract: This article explores several key events in the last 12 years that led to periods of heightened suspicion about Islam and Muslims in the United States. It provides a brief overview of the rise of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment known as “Islamophobia”, and it investigates claims that American Muslims cannot be trusted to be loyal to the United States because of their religion. This research examines American Muslim perspectives on national security discourse regarding terrorism and radicalization, both domestic and foreign, after 9/11. The article argues that it is important to highlight developments, both progressive and conservative, in Muslim communities in the United States over the last 12 years that belie suspicions of widespread anti-American sentiment among Muslims or questions about the loyalty of American Muslims. The article concludes with a discussion of important shifts from a Muslim identity politics that disassociated from American identity and ‘American exceptionalism’ to a position of integration and cultural assimilation.
Keywords: American Islam; cultural assimilation; homeland security; integration; Islamophobia; Islamophobia industry; Muslim gay rights; pluralism; Sunni-Shi’a; terrorism American Islam; cultural assimilation; homeland security; integration; Islamophobia; Islamophobia industry; Muslim gay rights; pluralism; Sunni-Shi’a; terrorism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haddad, Y.Y.; Harb, N.N. Post-9/11: Making Islam an American Religion. Religions 2014, 5, 477-501.

AMA Style

Haddad YY, Harb NN. Post-9/11: Making Islam an American Religion. Religions. 2014; 5(2):477-501.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haddad, Yvonne Y.; Harb, Nazir N. 2014. "Post-9/11: Making Islam an American Religion." Religions 5, no. 2: 477-501.


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