Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Agriculture, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 210-309

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Studies on Mitigating Lipid Oxidation Reactions in a Value-Added Dairy Product Using a Standardized Cranberry Extract
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 236-252; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020236
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE) was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w) and polyphenols (5%), the latter consisting of total anthocyanins [...] Read more.
A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE) was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w) and polyphenols (5%), the latter consisting of total anthocyanins (10%, w/w) and proanthocyanidins (12% w/w). Antioxidant capacity of the WCE was determined by ORAC, (hydrophilic ORAC = 348.31 ± 33.45 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g; lipophilic ORAC = 11.02 ± 0.85 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g). WCE was effective at stabilizing the model emulsion at a level of 0.375% (w/w), yielding a final pH of 5.6. Generation of initial lipid peroxidation products, hexanal and pentanal was inhibited by 92.4% ± 3.9% and 66.6% ± 5.3% (n = 3), respectively, when emulsions containing WCE were incubated at 50 °C for 90 h. This information was useful for formulating a fresh cream cheese product containing WCE to produce value-added potential and good self-life. The standardized WCE gave a final pH of 5.6 for the cheese premix and also significantly (P < 0.05) lowered both the PV and CD after 28 and 21 days at 4 °C storage, respectively, compared to untreated control. We conclude that there are important functional role(s) for cranberry constituents when presented as a standardized ingredient for producing value-added, stable fresh dairy products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 253-270; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020253
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013
PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related [...] Read more.
Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 271-284; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020271
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from [...] Read more.
There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST), “strategic” (SPT), “targeted” (TST) or based on “clinical signs” (MT). Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg) removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST) in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Diseases in Agriculture Production Systems: Trends and Impacts)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Italian Wild Rocket [Diplotaxis Tenuifolia (L.) DC.]: Influence of Agricultural Practices on Antioxidant Molecules and on Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Effects
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 285-298; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020285
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] belongs to the Brassicaceae family and has its origin in the Mediterranean region. The effect of conventional and integrated cultivation practices on the nutritional properties and benefits of wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] [...] Read more.
Wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] belongs to the Brassicaceae family and has its origin in the Mediterranean region. The effect of conventional and integrated cultivation practices on the nutritional properties and benefits of wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] were studied. Bioactive molecules content (vitamin C, quercetin, lutein), antioxidant properties and bioactivity of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of rocket in Caco-2 cells were determined. Regarding antioxidant properties, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) values ranged from 4.44 ± 0.11 mmol/kg fw to 9.92 ± 0.46 mmol/kg fw for conventional rocket and from 4.13 ± 0.17 fw mmol/kg to 11.02 ± 0.45 mmol/kg fw for integrated rocket. The characteristics of wild rocket as a dietary source of antioxidants have been pointed out. Significant differences in the quality of conventional and integrated rocket have been shown, while no influence of agronomic practice on biological activity was reported. A significant accumulation of cells in G1 phase and a consequent reduction in the S and G2 + M phases were observed in Caco-2 cells treated with rocket polyphenol extract. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using AquaticHealth.net to Detect Emerging Trends in Aquatic Animal Health
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 299-309; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020299
Received: 22 February 2013 / Revised: 27 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 April 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 [...] Read more.
AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Diseases in Agriculture Production Systems: Trends and Impacts)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Current Limitations in the Control and Spread of Ticks that Affect Livestock: A Review
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 221-235; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020221
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role [...] Read more.
Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role in promoting the spread of ticks in several regions. It appears that climate warming is pivotal in the spread and colonization of new territories by Rhipicephalus microplus in several regions of Africa. The reported increase in altitude of this tick species in the mountainous regions of Central and South America appears to be driven by such general trends in climate change. This factor, however, is not the only single contributor to the spread of ticks. The poor management of farms, uncontrolled movements of domestic animals, abundance of wild animals, and absence of an adequate framework to capture the ecological plasticity of certain ticks may explain the complexity of the control measures. In this paper, we review several details regarding the relationships of ticks with the environment, wild fauna and competition with other species of ticks. Our intention is to highlight these relationships with the aim to produce a coherent framework to explore tick ecology and its relationship with animal production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Diseases in Agriculture Production Systems: Trends and Impacts)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessTechnical Note Sample Size Requirements for Assessing Statistical Moments of Simulated Crop Yield Distributions
Agriculture 2013, 3(2), 210-220; doi:10.3390/agriculture3020210
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanistic crop growth models are becoming increasingly important in agricultural research and are extensively used in climate change impact assessments. In such studies, statistics of crop yields are usually evaluated without the explicit consideration of sample size requirements. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Mechanistic crop growth models are becoming increasingly important in agricultural research and are extensively used in climate change impact assessments. In such studies, statistics of crop yields are usually evaluated without the explicit consideration of sample size requirements. The purpose of this paper was to identify minimum sample sizes for the estimation of average, standard deviation and skewness of maize and winterwheat yields based on simulations carried out under a range of climate and soil conditions. Our results indicate that 15 years of simulated crop yields are sufficient to estimate average crop yields with a relative error of less than 10% at 95% confidence. Regarding standard deviation and skewness, sample size requirements depend on the degree of symmetry of the underlying population’s distribution. For symmetric distributions, samples of 200 and 1500 yield observations are needed to estimate the crop yields’ standard deviation and skewness coefficient, respectively. Higher degrees of asymmetry increase the sample size requirements relative to the estimation of the standard deviation, while at the same time the sample size requirements relative to the skewness coefficient are decreased. Full article
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Agriculture Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
agriculture@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Agriculture
Back to Top