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Open AccessCommunication
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/jcm5030029

Preliminary Analysis of the Expression of Selected Proangiogenic and Antioxidant Genes and MicroRNAs in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

1
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Pediatric Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
3
Department and Clinic of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-530 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
5
Department of Urology, University of Rzeszow, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
6
Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
These authors contributed equally to the work.
These authors contributed equally as senior authors to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takahiro Ochiya and Ryou-u Takahashi
Received: 5 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers)
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Abstract

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme contributing to the development and progression of different cancer types. HO-1 plays a role in pathological angiogenesis in bladder cancer and contributes to the resistance of this cancer to therapy. It also regulates the expression of microRNAs in rhabdomyosarcoma and non-small cell lung cancer. The expression of HO-1 may be regulated by hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) and Nrf2 transcription factor. The expression of HO-1 has not so far been examined in relation to Nrf2, HIF-1α, and potential mediators of angiogenesis in human bladder cancer. We measured the concentration of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and the expression of cytoprotective and proangiogenic mRNAs and miRNAs in healthy subjects and patients with bladder cancer. HO-1 expression was upregulated together with HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and Nrf2 in bladder cancer in comparison to healthy tissue. VEGF was elevated both at mRNA and protein level in the tumor and in sera, respectively. Additionally, IL-6 and IL-8 were increased in sera of patients affected with urothelial bladder cancer. Moreover, miR-155 was downregulated whereas miR-200c was elevated in cancer biopsies in comparison to healthy tissue. The results indicate that the increased expression of HO-1 in bladder cancer is paralleled by changes in the expression of other potentially interacting genes, like Nrf2, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF. Further studies are necessary to also elucidate the potential links with miR-155 and miR-200c. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; urothelial cancer; heme oxygenase-1; hypoxia inducible factor; Nrf2; miR-155; miR-200c; VEGF; angiogenesis bladder cancer; urothelial cancer; heme oxygenase-1; hypoxia inducible factor; Nrf2; miR-155; miR-200c; VEGF; angiogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kozakowska, M.; Dobrowolska-Glazar, B.; Okoń, K.; Józkowicz, A.; Dobrowolski, Z.; Dulak, J. Preliminary Analysis of the Expression of Selected Proangiogenic and Antioxidant Genes and MicroRNAs in Patients with Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 29.

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