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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/jcm5020022

Decoding the Secret of Cancer by Means of Extracellular Vesicles

1
Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Tinbergen Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
3
JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow for Research Abroad, 5-3-1, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
Academic Editors: Takahiro Ochiya and Ryou-u Takahashi
Received: 2 August 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1120 KB, uploaded 4 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

One of the recent outstanding developments in cancer biology is the emergence of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs, which are small membrane vesicles that contain proteins, mRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs), are secreted by a variety of cells and have been revealed to play an important role in intercellular communications. These molecules function in the recipient cells; this has brought new insight into cell-cell communication. Recent reports have shown that EVs contribute to cancer cell development, including tumor initiation, angiogenesis, immune surveillance, drug resistance, invasion, metastasis, maintenance of cancer stem cells, and EMT phenotype. In this review, I will summarize recent studies on EV-mediated miRNA transfer in cancer biology. Furthermore, I will also highlight the possibility of novel diagnostics and therapy using miRNAs in EVs against cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microRNA; microenvironment cell; metastasis; dormancy; cancer initiation; recurrence; brain metastasis; biomarker extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microRNA; microenvironment cell; metastasis; dormancy; cancer initiation; recurrence; brain metastasis; biomarker
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Kosaka, N. Decoding the Secret of Cancer by Means of Extracellular Vesicles. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 22.

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