Next Article in Journal
Vitamin D and the Development of Atopic Eczema
Next Article in Special Issue
Neuropsychology of Neuroendocrine Dysregulation after Traumatic Brain Injury
Previous Article in Journal
Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Addisonian Crisis after Missed Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Hypopituitarism
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 1025-1035; doi:10.3390/jcm4051025

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Autoimmunity and Traumatic Brain Injury

1
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso Dogliotti 14, Turin 10126, Italy
2
Division of Oncological Endocrinology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso Bramante 88, Turin 10126, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Günter Stalla and Anna Kopczak
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 25 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [116 KB, uploaded 19 May 2015]

Abstract

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of secondary hypopituitarism in children and adults, and is responsible for impaired quality of life, disabilities and compromised development. Alterations of pituitary function can occur at any time after the traumatic event, presenting in various ways and evolving during time, so they require appropriate screening for early detection and treatment. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, several mechanisms have been hypothesized, including hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity (HP-A). The aim of this study was to systematically review literature on the association between HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Major pitfalls related to the HP-A investigation were also discussed. Methods: The PubMed database was searched with a string developed for this purpose, without temporal or language limits, for original articles assessing the association of HP-A and TBI-induced hypopituitarism. Results: Three articles from the same group met the inclusion criteria. Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamic antibodies were detected using indirect immunofluorescence in a significant number of patients with acute and chronic TBI. Elevated antibody titer was associated with an increased risk of persistent hypopituitarism, especially somatotroph and gonadotroph deficiency, while no correlations were found with clinical parameters. Conclusion: HPA seems to contribute to TBI-induced pituitary damage, although major methodological issues need to be overcome and larger studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary data. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity; antipituitary antibodies; antihypothalamic antibodies; brain trauma injury hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity; antipituitary antibodies; antihypothalamic antibodies; brain trauma injury
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Guaraldi, F.; Grottoli, S.; Arvat, E.; Ghigo, E. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Autoimmunity and Traumatic Brain Injury. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1025-1035.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top