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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 1010-1024; doi:10.3390/jcm4051010

Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes

1
Department of Nephrology, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Clinical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska 5, Maribor 2000, Slovenia
2
Department of Dialysis, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Clinical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska 5, Maribor 2000, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Taborska ul. 8, Maribor 2000, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juan F. Navarro-González and Desirée Luis
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Nephropathy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [180 KB, uploaded 19 May 2015]

Abstract

Diabetes prevalence is increasing worldwide, mainly due to the increase in type 2 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy occurs in up to 40% of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is important to identify patients at risk of diabetic nephropathy and those who will progress to end stage renal disease. In clinical practice, most commonly used markers of renal disease and progression are serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria. Unfortunately, they are all insensitive. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the prognostic value and benefits of targeting some novel risk markers for development of diabetic nephropathy and its progression. It is focused mainly on tubular biomarkers (neutrophil-gelatinase associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, liver-fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), markers of inflammation (pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α and tumour necrosis factor-α receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines) and markers of oxidative stress. Despite the promise of some of these new biomarkers, further large, multicenter prospective studies are still needed before they can be used in everyday clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; nephropathy; biomarkers; tubular biomarkers; inflammation; oxidative stress diabetes; nephropathy; biomarkers; tubular biomarkers; inflammation; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hojs, R.; Ekart, R.; Bevc, S.; Hojs, N. Biomarkers of Renal Disease and Progression in Patients with Diabetes. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1010-1024.

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