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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(5), 1051-1062; doi:10.3390/jcm4051051

Neuropsychology of Neuroendocrine Dysregulation after Traumatic Brain Injury

1
Department of Psychology, LMU University of Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany
2
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Kopczak and Günter Stalla
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
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Abstract

Endocrine dysfunction is a common effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to affecting the regulation of important body functions, the disruption of endocrine physiology can significantly impair mental functions, such as attention, memory, executive function, and mood. This mini-review focuses on alterations in mental functioning that are associated with neuroendocrine disturbances in adults who suffered TBI. It summarizes the contribution of hormones to the regulation of mental functions, the consequences of TBI on mental health and neuroendocrine homeostasis, and the effects of hormone substitution on mental dysfunction caused by TBI. The available empirical evidence suggests that comprehensive assessment of mental functions should be standard in TBI subjects presenting with hormone deficiency and that hormone replacement therapy should be accompanied by pre- and post-assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; mental disorders; neuroendocrine dysregulation; cognition; mood traumatic brain injury; mental disorders; neuroendocrine dysregulation; cognition; mood
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zihl, J.; Almeida, O.F.X. Neuropsychology of Neuroendocrine Dysregulation after Traumatic Brain Injury. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1051-1062.

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