J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(1), 135-143; doi:10.3390/jcm3010135
Review

Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

1email, 2email and 1,2,3,* email
Received: 9 December 2013; in revised form: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a severe affective disorder which can present in adolescence, or sometimes earlier, and often requires a pharmacotherapeutic approach. The phenomenology of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents appears to differ from that of adult patients, prompting the need for specific pharmacotherapy guidelines for long-term management in this patient population. Current treatment guidelines were mainly developed based on evidence from studies in adult patients, highlighting the requirement for further research into the pharmacotherapy of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This review compares and critically analyzes the available guidelines, discussing the recommended medication classes, their mechanisms of action, side effect profiles and evidence base.
Keywords: adolescents; bipolar disorder; children; guidelines; pharmacotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cox, J.H.; Seri, S.; Cavanna, A.E. Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 135-143.

AMA Style

Cox JH, Seri S, Cavanna AE. Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2014; 3(1):135-143.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cox, Joanna H.; Seri, Stefano; Cavanna, Andrea E. 2014. "Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents." J. Clin. Med. 3, no. 1: 135-143.

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