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J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(1), 135-143; doi:10.3390/jcm3010135

Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

1 Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Birmingham and BSMHFT, Birmingham B152FG, UK 2 School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B47ET, UK 3 Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology and UCL, London WC1N3BG, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 27 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents)
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Bipolar disorder is a severe affective disorder which can present in adolescence, or sometimes earlier, and often requires a pharmacotherapeutic approach. The phenomenology of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents appears to differ from that of adult patients, prompting the need for specific pharmacotherapy guidelines for long-term management in this patient population. Current treatment guidelines were mainly developed based on evidence from studies in adult patients, highlighting the requirement for further research into the pharmacotherapy of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This review compares and critically analyzes the available guidelines, discussing the recommended medication classes, their mechanisms of action, side effect profiles and evidence base.
Keywords: adolescents; bipolar disorder; children; guidelines; pharmacotherapy adolescents; bipolar disorder; children; guidelines; pharmacotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cox, J.H.; Seri, S.; Cavanna, A.E. Clinical Guidelines on Long-Term Pharmacotherapy for Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 135-143.

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