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Vaccines 2015, 3(4), 930-939; doi:10.3390/vaccines3040930

From Antigen Delivery System to Adjuvanticy: The Board Application of Nanoparticles in Vaccinology

1
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
2
Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate (Milano), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Darrell J. Irvine
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [133 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the last years, nanotechnologies have raised great interest because of the potential applications of engineered nanoparticles in nanomedicine (i.e., in vaccination, in diagnostic imaging procedures, and as therapeutic drug delivery systems). The use of nanoparticles in medicine has brought about the issue of their interaction with the immune system for two main reasons: first, understanding how long nanomedicines could persist in the organism and exert their beneficial effects before being recognized and eliminated by our defensive systems; second, understanding how the immune responses can be modulated by nanoparticles in order to obtain optimal effects. This issue is crucial in vaccine formulations based on the use of nanoparticles, which can operate both as a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to induce and amplify protective immunity, in part because of their ability to activate the inflammasome and induce the maturation of interleukin 1β. Nanoparticles can be excellent adjuvants due to their biocompatibility and their physicochemical properties (e.g., size, shape, and surface charge), which can be tailored to obtain different immunological effects. This review provides an overview of recent strategies for the use of nanoparticles as promising/attractive adjuvants for novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. The use of nanovaccines, with their practically infinite possibilities of specific design, could open the way to precision vaccinology, i.e., vaccine formulations tailored on the individual immune reactivity status. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; vaccines; adjuvants; inflammation nanoparticles; vaccines; adjuvants; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Boraschi, D.; Italiani, P. From Antigen Delivery System to Adjuvanticy: The Board Application of Nanoparticles in Vaccinology. Vaccines 2015, 3, 930-939.

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