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Vaccines 2015, 3(2), 221-238; doi:10.3390/vaccines3020221

Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, HPC EB88, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diane M. Harper
Received: 14 January 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [658 KB, uploaded 24 March 2015]   |  


The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. View Full-Text
Keywords: tattooing; viral vector; immunotherapy; cervical cancer tattooing; viral vector; immunotherapy; cervical cancer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

van de Wall, S.; Walczak, M.; van Rooij, N.; Hoogeboom, B.-N.; Meijerhof, T.; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7. Vaccines 2015, 3, 221-238.

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