Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research
AbstractThere is currently no vaccine available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminth disease, schistosomiasis. Despite many researchers working towards this goal, one of the focuses has been on identifying new antigenic targets. The bar to achieve protective efficacy in humans was set at a consistent induction of 40% protection or better by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and although this is a modest goal, it is yet to be reached with the six most promising schistosomiasis vaccine candidates (Sm28GST, IrV5, Sm14, paramyosin, TPI, and Sm23). Adjuvant selection has a large impact on the effectiveness of the vaccine, and the use of adjuvants to aid in the stimulation of the immune system is a critical step and a major variable affecting vaccine development. In addition to a comprehensive understanding of the immune system, level of protection and the desired immune response required, there is also a need for a standardised and effective adjuvant formulation. This review summarises the status of adjuvants that have been or are being employed in schistosomiasis vaccine development focusing on immunisation outcomes at preclinical and clinical stages. View Full-Text
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Stephenson, R.; You, H.; McManus, D.P.; Toth, I. Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research. Vaccines 2014, 2, 654-685.
Stephenson R, You H, McManus DP, Toth I. Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research. Vaccines. 2014; 2(3):654-685.Chicago/Turabian Style
Stephenson, Rachel; You, Hong; McManus, Donald P.; Toth, Istvan. 2014. "Schistosome Vaccine Adjuvants in Preclinical and Clinical Research." Vaccines 2, no. 3: 654-685.