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Vaccines 2014, 2(2), 323-353; doi:10.3390/vaccines2020323
Review

Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

 and *
Received: 11 February 2014; in revised form: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Adjuvants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [887 KB, uploaded 25 April 2014]
Abstract: Vaccine efficacy is optimized by addition of immune adjuvants. However, although adjuvants have been used for over a century, to date, only few adjuvants are approved for human use, mostly aimed at improving vaccine efficacy and antigen-specific protective antibody production. The mechanism of action of immune adjuvants is diverse, depending on their chemical and molecular nature, ranging from non-specific effects (i.e., antigen depot at the immunization site) to specific activation of immune cells leading to improved host innate and adaptive responses. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of action of many adjuvants is still elusive, the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has provided new critical information on immunostimulatory effect of numerous bacterial components that engage TLRs. These ligands have been shown to improve both the quality and the quantity of host adaptive immune responses when used in vaccine formulations targeted to infectious diseases and cancer that require both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The potential of such TLR adjuvants in improving the design and the outcomes of several vaccines is continuously evolving, as new agonists are discovered and tested in experimental and clinical models of vaccination. In this review, a summary of the recent progress in development of TLR adjuvants is presented.
Keywords: TLR; vaccine adjuvant; immune response; microbial pathogens; cancer TLR; vaccine adjuvant; immune response; microbial pathogens; cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Toussi, D.N.; Massari, P. Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands. Vaccines 2014, 2, 323-353.

AMA Style

Toussi DN, Massari P. Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands. Vaccines. 2014; 2(2):323-353.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toussi, Deana N.; Massari, Paola. 2014. "Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands." Vaccines 2, no. 2: 323-353.

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