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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071130

Bi-Level Planning Model of Charging Stations Considering the Coupling Relationship between Charging Stations and Travel Route

1
College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Smart Grid Technology and Equipment, Nanjing 210096, China
3
Wuxi Power Supply Company, State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Wuxi 214061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging)
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Abstract

The major factors affecting the popularization of electric vehicles (EV) are the limited travel range and the lack of charging infrastructure. Therefore, to further promote the penetration of EVs, it is of great importance to plan and construct more fast charging stations rationally. In this study, first we establish a travel pattern model based on the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Then, with the traveling data of EVs, we build a bi-level planning model of charging stations. For the upper model, with an aim to maximize the travel success ratio, we consider the influence of the placement of charging stations on the user’s travel route. We adopt a hybrid method based on queuing theory and the greedy algorithm to determine the capacity of charging stations, and we utilize the total social cost and satisfaction index as two indicators to evaluate the optimal solutions obtained from the upper model. Additionally, the impact of the increase of EV ownership and slow charger coverage in the public parking lot on the fast charging demands and travel pattern of EV users are also studied. The example verifies the feasibility of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; fast charging station; slow charging; bi-planning model; travel success ratio electric vehicle; fast charging station; slow charging; bi-planning model; travel success ratio
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zang, H.; Fu, Y.; Chen, M.; Shen, H.; Miao, L.; Zhang, S.; Wei, Z.; Sun, G. Bi-Level Planning Model of Charging Stations Considering the Coupling Relationship between Charging Stations and Travel Route. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1130.

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