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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071048

Modeling and Solving Method for Supporting ‘Vehicle-to-Anything’ EV Charging Mode

1
State Key Laboratory of HVDC, Electric Power Research Institute, China Southern Power Grid, Guangzhou 510663, China
2
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicle Charging)
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Abstract

Electric vehicles (EVs) are an attractive solution to make traditional transportation energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. EVs are also considered an important element to bring new opportunities for power grids. In addition to the role of a pure load, along with the development of discharging technology for batteries, EVs can deliver energy back to power grids or another power consumption entity or community, performing various discharging activities such as vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-building (V2B), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-grid (V2G), etc. These charging scenarios can be uniformly named the ‘Vehicle-to-anything’ (V2A) charging mode. The paradigm of this charging mode has already been given; however, the modeling and solving approaches are still insufficient. Therefore, the analysis and modeling of V2A are investigated herein. The aim is to propose a generic model suitable for different applications of V2A in different places. The characteristics of the V2A charging mode are given and analyzed first. Then a model that can adapt to the V2A scenario is illustrated. The optimization problem is transformed and solved as an INLP (integer nonlinear programming) problem. The effectiveness of the approach is verified with simulation results. The outcome also indicates that V2A applications have great potential for lowering power consumption costs; for instance, a reduction of 4.37% in energy expense can be achieved in a case study with EV discharging enabled for a household. View Full-Text
Keywords: charging; discharging; electric vehicle; INLP; vehicle-to-anything charging; discharging; electric vehicle; INLP; vehicle-to-anything
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mao, T.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, B. Modeling and Solving Method for Supporting ‘Vehicle-to-Anything’ EV Charging Mode. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1048.

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