An Upper Extremity Rehabilitation System Using Efficient Vision-Based Action Identification Techniques
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(7), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071161 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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This study proposes an action identification system for home upper extremity rehabilitation. In the proposed system, we apply an RGB-depth (color-depth) sensor to capture the image sequences of the patient’s upper extremity actions to identify its movements. We apply a skin color detection
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This study proposes an action identification system for home upper extremity rehabilitation. In the proposed system, we apply an RGB-depth (color-depth) sensor to capture the image sequences of the patient’s upper extremity actions to identify its movements. We apply a skin color detection technique to assist with extremity identification and to build up the upper extremity skeleton points. We use the dynamic time warping algorithm to determine the rehabilitation actions. The system presented herein builds up upper extremity skeleton points rapidly. Through the upper extremity of the human skeleton and human skin color information, the upper extremity skeleton points are effectively established by the proposed system, and the rehabilitation actions of patients are identified by a dynamic time warping algorithm. Thus, the proposed system can achieve a high recognition rate of 98% for the defined rehabilitation actions for the various muscles. Moreover, the computational speed of the proposed system can reach 125 frames per second—the processing time per frame is less than 8 ms on a personal computer platform. This computational efficiency allows efficient extensibility for future developments to deal with complex ambient environments and for implementation in embedded and pervasive systems. The major contributions of the study are: (1) the proposed system is not only a physical exercise game, but also a movement training program for specific muscle groups; (2) The hardware of upper extremity rehabilitation system included a personal computer with personal computer and a depth camera. These are economic equipment, so that patients who need this system can set up one set at home; (3) patients can perform rehabilitation actions in sitting position to prevent him/her from falling down during training; (4) the accuracy rate of identifying rehabilitation action is as high as 98%, which is sufficient for distinguishing between correct and wrong action when performing specific action trainings; (5) The proposed upper extremity rehabilitation system is real-time, efficient to vision-based action identification, and low-cost hardware and software, which is affordable for most families.