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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010101

Reduction of T2 Relaxation Rates due to Large Volume Fractions of Magnetic Nanoparticles for All Motional Regimes

Department of Physics, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain, UAE
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

The effect of high volume fraction of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) transverse relaxation rates (R2 = 1/T2 and R2* = 1/T2*) is investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Theoretical models assume that particles occupy a small volume fraction of the sample space. Results presented in this work show that models based on both motional averaged (MAR) and static dephasing (SDR) regimes respectively underestimate and overestimate relaxation rates at large volume fractions. Furthermore, both R2* and R2* become echo-time dependent. This suggests that diffusion is involved with larger echo-times producing smaller relaxation rates due to better averaging of the magnetic field gradients. Findings emphasize the need for the models to be modified to take account of high particle concentration especially important for application involving clustering and trapping of nanoparticles inside cells. This is important in order to improve the design process of MNP Contrast Agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; MRI; T2; Monte Carlo; contrast agent; SDR; MAR magnetic nanoparticles; MRI; T2; Monte Carlo; contrast agent; SDR; MAR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Issa, B. Reduction of T2 Relaxation Rates due to Large Volume Fractions of Magnetic Nanoparticles for All Motional Regimes. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 101.

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