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Behav. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 434-625

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Research

Open AccessArticle Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 434-442; doi:10.3390/bs5040434
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill
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Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle Age-Related Response Bias in the Decoding of Sad Facial Expressions
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 443-460; doi:10.3390/bs5040443
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have found that age is negatively associated with the accuracy of decoding emotional facial expressions; this effect of age was found for actors as well as for raters. Given that motivational differences and stereotypes may bias the attribution of emotion, the
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Recent studies have found that age is negatively associated with the accuracy of decoding emotional facial expressions; this effect of age was found for actors as well as for raters. Given that motivational differences and stereotypes may bias the attribution of emotion, the aim of the present study was to explore whether these age effects are due to response bias, that is, the unbalanced use of response categories. Thirty younger raters (19–30 years) and thirty older raters (65–81 years) viewed video clips of younger and older actors representing the same age ranges, and decoded their facial expressions. We computed both raw hit rates and bias-corrected hit rates to assess the influence of potential age-related response bias on decoding accuracy. Whereas raw hit rates indicated significant effects of both the actors’ and the raters’ ages on decoding accuracy for sadness, these age effects were no longer significant when response bias was corrected. Our results suggest that age effects on the accuracy of decoding facial expressions may be due, at least in part, to age-related response bias. Full article
Open AccessArticle Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 461-476; doi:10.3390/bs5040461
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 29 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence
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Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent’s own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 477-495; doi:10.3390/bs5040477
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
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Abstract
Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is
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Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle The Classification of Hysteria and Related Disorders: Historical and Phenomenological Considerations
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 496-517; doi:10.3390/bs5040496
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 31 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions
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This article examines the history of the conceptualization of dissociative, conversion, and somatoform syndromes in relation to one another, chronicles efforts to classify these and other phenomenologically-related psychopathology in the American diagnostic system for mental disorders, and traces the subsequent divergence in opinions of dissenting sectors on classification of these disorders. This article then considers the extensive phenomenological overlap across these disorders in empirical research, and from this foundation presents a new model for the conceptualization of these disorders. The classification of disorders formerly known as hysteria and phenomenologically-related syndromes has long been contentious and unsettled. Examination of the long history of the conceptual difficulties, which remain inherent in existing classification schemes for these disorders, can help to address the continuing controversy. This review clarifies the need for a major conceptual revision of the current classification of these disorders. A new phenomenologically-based classification scheme for these disorders is proposed that is more compatible with the agnostic and atheoretical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders used by the current classification system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle Types of Relational Aggression in Girls Are Differentiated by Callous-Unemotional Traits, Peers and Parental Overcontrol
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 518-536; doi:10.3390/bs5040518
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer
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Adolescent girls often perpetrate aggression by gossiping and spreading rumours about others, by attempting to ruin relationships and by manipulating and excluding others. Further, males and females engage in reactive and proactive relational aggression differently. In this study, we examined the individual, peer and parental contextual factors that best explained the use of reactive and proactive relational aggression in girls. Female participants (n = 614; ages 11–18 years) completed questionnaires on aggression, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, delinquency, peer delinquency, gender composition of their peer group, resistance to peer influence and perceived parental overcontrol. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of individual, peer- and parent-related variables on the likelihood of being classified as a low aggressor, reactive aggressor or proactive/reactive aggressor. Girls in the combined reactive/proactive aggression group were younger, had greater CU traits, a lower proportion of male peers and greater perception of parental control than both the reactive and low aggressive groups. Both highly aggressive groups were more delinquent and had greater peer delinquency than the low aggressive group. This study suggests those girls who show relational aggression for the purpose of gaining status and revenge feel restrained by their parents and may gravitate toward relationships that support their behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Aggression and Violence: Causes and Consequences)
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Open AccessArticle Impulsivity and Stillness: NADA, Pharmaceuticals, and Psychotherapy in Substance Use and Other DSM 5 Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 537-546; doi:10.3390/bs5040537
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 8 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
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Abstract
Pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy are commonly used in the management of impulsivity. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol is an adjunctive therapy that involves the bilateral insertion of 1 to 5 predetermined ear needle points. One of the main benefits reported by patients,
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Pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy are commonly used in the management of impulsivity. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol is an adjunctive therapy that involves the bilateral insertion of 1 to 5 predetermined ear needle points. One of the main benefits reported by patients, providers, and programs utilizing NADA is the sense of stillness, centering, and well-being. The induction of this attitude is seen as contributing to improved clinical outcomes including engagement and retention. The attitude of stillness is also suggestive of a pathway to mitigating impulsivity. Impulsivity is associated with substance use disorders and other DSM 5 diagnoses. Impulsivity has characteristics that are manifested clinically in behaviors such as disinhibition, poor self-control, lack of deliberation, thrill seeking, risk-taking. NADA holds promise as a useful treatment adjunct in the comprehensive management of disorders for which impulsivity is a prominent component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 547-564; doi:10.3390/bs5040547
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts.
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Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Behavior)
Open AccessArticle Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 565-575; doi:10.3390/bs5040565
Received: 26 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort
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In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle The Syndrome of Catatonia
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 576-588; doi:10.3390/bs5040576
Received: 12 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia. Many clinicians have thought that the prevalence of this condition has been decreasing over the past few decades. This review reminds clinicians that catatonia is not exclusively associated with schizophrenia, and
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Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which has historically been associated with schizophrenia. Many clinicians have thought that the prevalence of this condition has been decreasing over the past few decades. This review reminds clinicians that catatonia is not exclusively associated with schizophrenia, and is still common in clinical practice. Many cases are related to affective disorders or are of an idiopathic nature. The illusion of reduced prevalence has been due to evolving diagnostic systems that failed to capture catatonic syndromes. This systemic error has remained unchallenged, and potentiated by the failure to perform adequate neurological evaluations and catatonia screening exams on psychiatric patients. We find that current data supports catatonic syndromes are still common, often severe and of modern clinical importance. Effective treatment is relatively easy and can greatly reduce organ failure associated with prolonged psychomotor symptoms. Prompt identification and treatment can produce a robust improvement in most cases. The ongoing prevalence of this syndrome requires that psychiatrists recognize catatonia and its presentations, the range of associated etiologies, and the import of timely treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis Past, Present and Future)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 589-601; doi:10.3390/bs5040589
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
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Abstract
Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general
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Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after one year. There were no differences in outcome measures across the different centers or between the individual and group treatments. Half of the PTSD variation at 12 months was explained by four factors: education, avoidance attachment, emotional coping, and social support. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicated a substantial reduction in mental health problems in survivors following 12 months of treatment and identified personality and social factors important for recovery. Full article
Open AccessArticle Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 602-625; doi:10.3390/bs5040602
Received: 1 July 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
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Abstract
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended
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Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)

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