Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Behav. Sci., Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 192-315

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Distinct Episodic Verbal Memory Profiles in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 192-205; doi:10.3390/bs3020192
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (93 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. [...] Read more.
According to some authors, episodic memory impairment may be a feature shared by all schizophrenic patients, whereas others argue in favor of the mnesic heterogeneity. Our aims were to determine whether patients can be grouped based on according to their mnesic performances. The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), an episodic verbal learning test, was compared in 61 schizophrenic patients and 61 matched healthy subjects. The 32 indices were calculated using CVLT Scoring Software. This process allowed us to describe patients’ episodic processes in detail (encoding, storage, retrieval). We isolated one group with normative data, another showed impairment of both encoding and retrieval processes, and in the last one, only encoding process was impaired. As schizophrenia is heterogeneous with regard to episodic memory, impairments should not be considered as a common core to the various forms of the illness and it would be fruitful to systematically assess episodic processes in detail to take into account individual abilities and challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Facilitation of Relational Learning in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 206-216; doi:10.3390/bs3020206
Received: 15 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
PDF Full-text (186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abnormal hippocampal function likely contributes to relational learning deficits observed in schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these deficits can be attenuated with a training intervention. The purpose of this project was to determine if training could facilitate relational learning of the transverse [...] Read more.
Abnormal hippocampal function likely contributes to relational learning deficits observed in schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these deficits can be attenuated with a training intervention. The purpose of this project was to determine if training could facilitate relational learning of the transverse patterning task in schizophrenia. Healthy and schizophrenia subjects completed a version of transverse patterning that incorporated training. The majority of subjects with schizophrenia successfully learned transverse patterning when provided with training. A subgroup (approximately 25%) of schizophrenia subjects showed no tendency to learn with training. These results were replicated in a second study with a separate cohort and different stimuli. This study illustrates that relational learning of the transverse patterning can be facilitated in schizophrenia with training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)
Open AccessArticle The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 244-252; doi:10.3390/bs3020244
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 29 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common [...] Read more.
For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Perspectives on Emotion, Behavior, and Cognition)
Open AccessArticle Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 273-297; doi:10.3390/bs3020273
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously [...] Read more.
Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d') to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mill and Mental Phenomena: Critical Contributions to a Science of Cognition
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 217-231; doi:10.3390/bs3020217
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (81 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill’s life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. [...] Read more.
Attempts to define cognition preceded John Stuart Mill’s life and continue to this day. John Stuart Mill envisioned a science of mental phenomena informed by associationism, empirical introspection, and neurophysiology, and he advanced specific ideas that still influence modern conceptions of cognition. The present article briefly reviews Mill’s personal history and the times in which he lived, and it traces the evolution of ideas that have run through him to contemporary cognitive concepts. The article also highlights contemporary problems in defining cognition and supports specific criteria regarding what constitutes cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What is Cognition?)
Open AccessReview St. Augustine’s Reflections on Memory and Time and the Current Concept of Subjective Time in Mental Time Travel
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 232-243; doi:10.3390/bs3020232
Received: 26 February 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 25 April 2013
PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reconstructing the past and anticipating the future, i.e., the ability of travelling in mental time, is thought to be at the heart of consciousness and, by the same token, at the center of human cognition. This extraordinary mental activity is possible [...] Read more.
Reconstructing the past and anticipating the future, i.e., the ability of travelling in mental time, is thought to be at the heart of consciousness and, by the same token, at the center of human cognition. This extraordinary mental activity is possible thanks to the ability of being aware of ‘subjective time’. In the present study, we attempt to trace back the first recorded reflections on the relations between time and memory, to the end of the fourth century’s work, the Confessions, by the theologian and philosopher, St. Augustine. We concentrate on Book 11, where he extensively developed a series of articulated and detailed observations on memory and time. On the bases of selected paragraphs, we endeavor to highlight some concepts that may be considered as the product of the first or, at least, very early reflections related to our current notions of subjective time in mental time travel. We also draw a fundamental difference inherent to the frameworks within which the questions were raised. The contribution of St. Augustine on time and memory remains significant, notwithstanding the 16 centuries elapsed since it was made, likely because of the universality of its contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What is Cognition?)
Open AccessReview Systems Biology as a Comparative Approach to Understand Complex Gene Expression in Neurological Diseases
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 253-272; doi:10.3390/bs3020253
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systems biology interdisciplinary approaches have become an essential analytical tool that may yield novel and powerful insights about the nature of human health and disease. Complex disorders are known to be caused by the combination of genetic, environmental, immunological or neurological factors. [...] Read more.
Systems biology interdisciplinary approaches have become an essential analytical tool that may yield novel and powerful insights about the nature of human health and disease. Complex disorders are known to be caused by the combination of genetic, environmental, immunological or neurological factors. Thus, to understand such disorders, it becomes necessary to address the study of this complexity from a novel perspective. Here, we present a review of integrative approaches that help to understand the underlying biological processes involved in the etiopathogenesis of neurological diseases, for example, those related to autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) endophenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the role of systems biology in the discovery of new biomarkers or therapeutic targets in complex disorders, a key step in the development of personalized medicine, and we demonstrate the role of systems approaches in the design of classifiers that can shorten the time for behavioral diagnosis of autism. Full article
Open AccessReview Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms
Behav. Sci. 2013, 3(2), 298-315; doi:10.3390/bs3020298
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular [...] Read more.
Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Memory Deficits Related to Neuropsychiatric Disorders)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Behavioral Sciences Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
behavsci@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Behavioral Sciences
Back to Top