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Geosciences 2013, 3(2), 140-158; doi:10.3390/geosciences3020140
Article

Spatial Evolution of the Chromium Contamination in Soils from the Assopos to Thiva Basin and C. Evia (Greece) and Potential Source(s): Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes

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Received: 25 January 2013; in revised form: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 9 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoscience of the Built Environment)
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Abstract: The investigation of the contamination in soil, plants and groundwater revealed a spatial evolution, with an increasing trend in the Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Co contents in soils from the Assopos to Thiva basin, followed by C. Evia and Ni-laterite deposits, suggesting that the latter and their parent ophiolites are a potential source for these metals. In contrast, the contamination in groundwater by Cr(VI), ranging from 2 to 360 μg/L Cr, and a varying degree of salinization is probably due to both human activities and natural processes. A diverse source for the contamination of soil and groundwater in the Assopos-Thiva basins is consistent with the increasing trend of the Mg/Si ratio and Cr(VI) concentration in water. The use of deep karst-type aquifer instead of the shallow-Neogene one may provide a solution to the crucial environmental problem. The selective extraction by EDTA and alkaline solution showed that Cr and Fe are less available than Mn. The Cr contents in plants range from <1 to tens of mg/kg, due probably to the high resistance of chromite. However, the average Crtotal contents in plants/crops are higher than normal or sufficient values, whilst Crtotal accumulation [(% metals in plants × 100)/metal in soil] and Cr(VI) accumulation are relatively low. There is a very good positive correlation between accumulation factors for Cr and Fe (R2 = 0.92), suggesting a similarity concerning their uptake.
Keywords: contamination; Cr(VI); soil; water; plant; Greece contamination; Cr(VI); soil; water; plant; Greece
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Economou-Eliopoulos, M.; Megremi, I.; Atsarou, C.; Theodoratou, C.; Vasilatos, C. Spatial Evolution of the Chromium Contamination in Soils from the Assopos to Thiva Basin and C. Evia (Greece) and Potential Source(s): Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes. Geosciences 2013, 3, 140-158.

AMA Style

Economou-Eliopoulos M, Megremi I, Atsarou C, Theodoratou C, Vasilatos C. Spatial Evolution of the Chromium Contamination in Soils from the Assopos to Thiva Basin and C. Evia (Greece) and Potential Source(s): Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes. Geosciences. 2013; 3(2):140-158.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria; Megremi, Ifigeneia; Atsarou, Cathy; Theodoratou, Christina; Vasilatos, Charalambos. 2013. "Spatial Evolution of the Chromium Contamination in Soils from the Assopos to Thiva Basin and C. Evia (Greece) and Potential Source(s): Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes." Geosciences 3, no. 2: 140-158.


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