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Metals 2016, 6(11), 255; doi:10.3390/met6110255

Effects of Phyllanthus muellerianus Leaf-Extract on Steel-Reinforcement Corrosion in 3.5% NaCl-Immersed Concrete

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota 112001, Nigeria
2
Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Manuel R. S. Tavares and Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 4 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
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Abstract

This paper investigates Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract effects on steel-reinforcement corrosion in concrete immersed in 3.5% NaCl, simulating saline/marine environment. Different concentrations of the leaf-extract were admixed in steel-reinforced concrete samples, which were immersed, with normal control, in the test-environment, while positive control samples were immersed in distilled water. Electrochemical measurements of corrosion-rate (by linear-polarization-resistance instrument), corrosion-current (by zero-resistance-ammeter) and corrosion-potential (by high impedance multimeter) were obtained for assessing the reinforcing-steel corrosion. Analyzed results showed that the corrosion-rate exhibited excellent correlation (R = 98.82%, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency = 97.66%, ANOVA p-value = 0.0006) with function of the admixture concentration and of the corrosion noise-resistance (ratio of corrosion-potential and corrosion-current standard deviations). The 0.3333% Phyllanthus muellerianus (per weight of cement) exhibited optimal efficiency, η = 97.58% ± 1.28% (experimental) or 95.33% ± 4.25% (predicted), at inhibiting concrete steel-reinforcement corrosion in the test-environment, which compares well with the positive control performance model, η = 97.96% ± 0.03%. The experimental and predicted models followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, which indicated physisorption as the Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract adsorption mechanism on the reinforcing-steel. These support suitability of the N-, S-, and O-containing and π-electron rich Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract as an environmentally-friendly inhibitor for effective corrosion-protection of steel-reinforcement in concrete designed for the saline/marine environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: steel-reinforcement corrosion; non-destructive tests by electrochemical corrosion monitoring; saline/marine simulating-environment; environmentally-friendly inhibitor; analyses of metallic corrosion test-data; inhibition of metallic corrosion; Langmuir adsorption isotherm steel-reinforcement corrosion; non-destructive tests by electrochemical corrosion monitoring; saline/marine simulating-environment; environmentally-friendly inhibitor; analyses of metallic corrosion test-data; inhibition of metallic corrosion; Langmuir adsorption isotherm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okeniyi, J.O.; Loto, C.A.; Popoola, A.P.I. Effects of Phyllanthus muellerianus Leaf-Extract on Steel-Reinforcement Corrosion in 3.5% NaCl-Immersed Concrete. Metals 2016, 6, 255.

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