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Insects 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/insects8030081

Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Diversity and Sampling Methodology in a Midwestern USA Deciduous Forest

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455, USA
2
USDA-Farm Service Agency, RR3 Box 129A, Carrollton, IL 62016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian T. Forschler
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [240 KB, uploaded 4 August 2017]

Abstract

Forests provide potentially important bee habitat, but little research has been done on forest bee diversity and the relative effectiveness of bee sampling methods in this environment. Bee diversity and sampling methodology were studied in an Illinois, USA upland oak-hickory forest using elevated and ground-level pan traps, malaise traps, and vane traps. 854 bees and 55 bee species were collected. Elevated pan traps collected the greatest number of bees (473), but ground-level pan traps collected greater species diversity (based on Simpson’s diversity index) than did elevated pan traps. Elevated and ground-level pan traps collected the greatest bee species richness, with 43 and 39 species, respectively. An estimated sample size increase of over 18-fold would be required to approach minimum asymptotic richness using ground-level pan traps. Among pan trap colors/elevations, elevated yellow pan traps collected the greatest number of bees (266) but the lowest diversity. Malaise traps were relatively ineffective, collecting only 17 bees. Vane traps collected relatively low species richness (14 species), and Chao1 and abundance coverage estimators suggested that minimum asymptotic species richness was approached for that method. Bee species composition differed significantly between elevated pan traps, ground-level pan traps, and vane traps. Indicator species were significantly associated with each of these trap types, as well as with particular pan trap colors/elevations. These results indicate that Midwestern deciduous forests provide important bee habitat, and that the performance of common bee sampling methods varies substantially in this environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: pan traps; indicator species; malaise traps; species composition; species diversity; species richness; vane traps pan traps; indicator species; malaise traps; species composition; species diversity; species richness; vane traps
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

McCravy, K.W.; Ruholl, J.D. Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Diversity and Sampling Methodology in a Midwestern USA Deciduous Forest. Insects 2017, 8, 81.

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