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Insects 2015, 6(3), 658-685; doi:10.3390/insects6030658

Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia

1
Pest & Environmental Adaptation Research Group, School of BioSciences, Bio21 Institute, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
2
Eliminate Dengue Project (EDP) Yogyakarta, Perumahan Sekip N-14, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55262, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Changlu Wang
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticide Resistance)
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Abstract

Mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc) have been identified in Aedes aegypti and some have been associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance. Whether these mutations cause resistance, alone or in combination with other alleles, remains unclear, but must be understood if mutations are to become markers for resistance monitoring. We describe High Resolution Melt (HRM) genotyping assays for assessing mutations found in Ae. aegypti in Indonesia (F1565C, V1023G, S996P) and use them to test for associations with pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes from Yogyakarta, a city where insecticide use is widespread. Such knowledge is important because Yogyakarta is a target area for releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with virus-blocking traits for dengue suppression. We identify three alleles across Yogyakarta putatively linked to resistance in previous research. By comparing resistant and susceptible mosquitoes from bioassays, we show that the 1023G allele is associated with resistance to type I and type II pyrethroids. In contrast, F1565C homozygotes were rare and there was only a weak association between individuals heterozygous for the mutation and resistance to a type I pyrethroid. As the heterozygote is expected to be incompletely recessive, it is likely that this association was due to a different resistance mechanism being present. A resistance advantage conferred to V1023G homozygotes through addition of the S996P allele in the homozygous form was suggested for the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Screening of V1023G and S996P should assist resistance monitoring in Ae. aegypti from Yogyakarta, and these mutations should be maintained in Wolbachia strains destined for release in this city to ensure that these virus-blocking strains of mosquitoes are not disadvantaged, relative to resident populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrethroid; mosquito; bioassay; HRM; Vssc; para; kdr pyrethroid; mosquito; bioassay; HRM; Vssc; para; kdr
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wuliandari, J.R.; Lee, S.F.; White, V.L.; Tantowijoyo, W.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Endersby-Harshman, N.M. Association between Three Mutations, F1565C, V1023G and S996P, in the Voltage-Sensitive Sodium Channel Gene and Knockdown Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Insects 2015, 6, 658-685.

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