Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of the SMOS-Derived Soil Water Deficit Index as Agricultural Drought Index in Northeast of Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
Verification of Calculation Method Using Monte Carlo Method for Water Supply Demands of Office Building
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2017, 9(6), 375; doi:10.3390/w9060375

Water versus Wireless Coverage in Rural Mali: Links and Paradoxes

Departamento de Geodinámica, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/José Antonio Novais 12, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Skeffington
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5263 KB, uploaded 26 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Water and wireless coverage were evaluated in a rural commune of southern Mali. All improved water sources in the area were checked for operability, accessibility, and water quality, while wireless coverage was tested by means of smartphones, phone calls, and instant messaging applications. Theoretical water coverage exceeded 82% of the total village surface area, thus beating the national and sub-Saharan African averages, but dropped to just 39% when considering only serviceable and contamination-free sources. In contrast, wireless coverage exceeded 90%. These outcomes highlight a triple paradox: (1) water from theoretically safe (i.e., improved) water sources is often unsafe to drink; (2) wireless access is better than water access even though water is essential for human survival and telecommunications are not; and (3) excellent Internet coverage does not help a large number of people, who lack the skills, devices, or need to access it. While telecommunications seem to be making inroads towards universal access faster than the water sector, a survey of water committees uncovered a hidden nexus between both resources, revealing that increased wireless access is actually contributing to underpin water coverage in a variety of ways. View Full-Text
Keywords: water access; wireless access; improved water sources; human rights; geographic information systems; Mali water access; wireless access; improved water sources; human rights; geographic information systems; Mali
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Santos, P.; Cerván, J.A.; Cano, B.; Díaz-Alcaide, S. Water versus Wireless Coverage in Rural Mali: Links and Paradoxes. Water 2017, 9, 375.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top