Next Article in Journal
Unsteady State Water Level Analysis for Discharge Hydrograph Estimation in Rivers with Torrential Regime: The Case Study of the February 2016 Flood Event in the Crati River, South Italy
Next Article in Special Issue
Mapping Dynamic Water Fraction under the Tropical Rain Forests of the Amazonian Basin from SMOS Brightness Temperatures
Previous Article in Journal
Hydropower Royalties: A Comparative Analysis of Major Producing Countries (China, Brazil, Canada and the United States)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fifteen Years (1993–2007) of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(4), 289; doi:10.3390/w9040289

Evaluation of the Water Cycle in the European COSMO-REA6 Reanalysis Using GRACE

1
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Bonn University, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
Hafen-City University, 20457 Hamburg, Germany
3
Meteorological Institute, Bonn University, 52121 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frédéric Frappart
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2474 KB, uploaded 20 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Precipitation and evapotranspiration, and in particular the precipitation minus evapotranspiration deficit ( P E ), are climate variables that may be better represented in reanalyses based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models than in other datasets. P E provides essential information on the interaction of the atmosphere with the land surface, which is of fundamental importance for understanding climate change in response to anthropogenic impacts. However, the skill of models in closing the atmospheric-terrestrial water budget is limited. Here, total water storage estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission are used in combination with discharge data for assessing the closure of the water budget in the recent high-resolution Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling 6-km Reanalysis (COSMO-REA6) while comparing to global reanalyses (Interim ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)) and observation-based datasets (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM)). All 26 major European river basins are included in this study and aggregated to 17 catchments. Discharge data are obtained from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and insufficiently long time series are extended by calibrating the monthly Génie Rural rainfall-runoff model (GR2M) against the existing discharge observations, subsequently generating consistent model discharge time series for the GRACE period. We find that for most catchments, COSMO-REA6 closes the water budget within the error estimates. In contrast, the global reanalyses underestimate P E with up to 20 mm/month. For all models and catchments, short-term (below the seasonal timescale) variability of atmospheric terrestrial flux agrees well with GRACE and discharge data with correlations of about 0.6. Our large study area allows identifying regional patterns like negative trends of P E in eastern Europe and positive trends in northwestern Europe. View Full-Text
Keywords: water cycle; GRACE; water budget equation; atmospheric reanalyses; numerical weather prediction models; precipitation minus evapotranspiration; COSMO-REA6 water cycle; GRACE; water budget equation; atmospheric reanalyses; numerical weather prediction models; precipitation minus evapotranspiration; COSMO-REA6
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Springer, A.; Eicker, A.; Bettge, A.; Kusche, J.; Hense, A. Evaluation of the Water Cycle in the European COSMO-REA6 Reanalysis Using GRACE. Water 2017, 9, 289.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top