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Water 2017, 9(4), 245; doi:10.3390/w9040245

Fifteen Years (1993–2007) of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations

1
Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (LEGOS), Université de Toulouse, IRD, CNES, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse 31400, France
2
Université de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6143, Mont-Saint-Aignan 76821, France
3
Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Université de Toulouse, IRD, CNES, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse 31400, France
4
Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences (IFCWS), IRD-IISc-NIO-IITM Joint International Laboratory, Bangalore 560012, India
5
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam 14473, Germany
6
Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (CAOS), Indian Institute of Science, IISc, Bangalore 560012, India
7
Hydrological Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
8
Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA
9
Laboratoire d’Etudes du Rayonnement et de la Matière en Astrophysique (LERMA), CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Paris 75014, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology)
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Abstract

Surface water storage is a key component of the terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that also plays a major role in water resources management. In this study, surface water storage (SWS) variations are estimated at monthly time-scale over 15 years (1993–2007) using a hypsographic approach based on the combination of topographic information from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP)-based Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM) and the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) product in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. The monthly variations of the surface water storage are in good accordance with precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), river discharges at the outlet of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), with correlations higher than 0.85. Surface water storage presents a strong seasonal signal (~496 km3 estimated by GIEMS/ASTER and ~378 km3 by GIEMS/HyMAPs), representing ~51% and ~41% respectively of the total water storage signal and it exhibits a large inter-annual variability with strong negative anomalies during the drought-like conditions of 1994 or strong positive anomalies such as in 1998. This new dataset of SWS is a new, highly valuable source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ganges-Brahmaputra; surface water storage; multi-satellite; floodplains Ganges-Brahmaputra; surface water storage; multi-satellite; floodplains
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Salameh, E.; Frappart, F.; Papa, F.; Güntner, A.; Venugopal, V.; Getirana, A.; Prigent, C.; Aires, F.; Labat, D.; Laignel, B. Fifteen Years (1993–2007) of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations. Water 2017, 9, 245.

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