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Water 2017, 9(2), 143; doi:10.3390/w9020143

Recent Advances in the Use of Chemical Markers for Tracing Wastewater Contamination in Aquatic Environment: A Review

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore
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Academic Editor: Maurizio Barbieri
Received: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
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Abstract

There has been increasing research focus on the detection and occurrence of wastewater contamination in aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants receive effluents containing various chemical pollutants. These chemicals may not be fully removed during treatment and could potentially enter the receiving water bodies. Detection of these chemical pollutants and source identification could be a challenging research task due to the diversified chemical and functional groups, concentration levels and fate and transportation mechanisms of these pollutants in the environment. Chemical markers such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, artificial sweeteners, fluorescent whitening agents, sterols and stanols, and nitrate and nitrogen isotopics have been widely used by most research as markers. These markers served as indicators of wastewater contamination to the receiving bodies due to their frequent usage, resistance to biodegradability and, more importantly, anthropogenic origin. These markers are commonly used in combination to identify the contaminant source of different origins. This article discusses the main chemical markers that are used to identify wastewater contamination in receiving bodies, the current trends, and approach to select suitable chemical markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical  markers;  wastewater  contamination;  pharmaceuticals  and  personal  care  products; artificial sweeteners; fluorescent whitening agents; sterols and stanols chemical  markers;  wastewater  contamination;  pharmaceuticals  and  personal  care  products; artificial sweeteners; fluorescent whitening agents; sterols and stanols
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lim, F.Y.; Ong, S.L.; Hu, J. Recent Advances in the Use of Chemical Markers for Tracing Wastewater Contamination in Aquatic Environment: A Review. Water 2017, 9, 143.

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