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Water 2017, 9(2), 142; doi:10.3390/w9020142

Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Piped Supplies, Groundwater Management and Product Transportation

1
Ghana School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana
2
British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
3
Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract

Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low‐income and middle‐income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and the implications for water resource management and transport‐related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand for natural mineral water and hydrogeological characteristics. A total of 764 addresses for premises licensed to produce packaged water from 2009 to 2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and examined beverage import/export data. We found evidence to suggest that packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. Groundwater abstraction for packaged water is low relative to piped water production and domestic borehole abstraction nationally, but may be locally significant. For natural mineral water, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. In future, packaged water producer surveys could be used to quantify unregulated production, volumes of piped versus groundwater abstracted and treatment processes used. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dzodzomenyo, M.; Dotse‐Gborgbortsi, W.; Lapworth, D.; Wardrop, N.; Wright, J. Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Piped Supplies, Groundwater Management and Product Transportation. Water 2017, 9, 142.

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