Next Article in Journal
Effect of Water Quality Sampling Approaches on Nitrate Load Predictions of a Prominent Regression-Based Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Stormwater Biofilters as Barriers against Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Adenoviruses; Results from a Laboratory Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Invariants of Turbulence Reynolds Stress and of Dissipation Tensors in Regular Breaking Waves
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improving the Viability of Stormwater Harvesting through Rudimentary Real Time Control
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2017, 9(11), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110896

Quality of Roof-Harvested Rainwater as a Function of Environmental and Air Pollution Factors in a Coastal Mediterranean City (Haifa, Israel)

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1314 KB, uploaded 16 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

The quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate, which is characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters, was studied. The effects of environmental factors (rain depth, length of dry period between consecutive rain events, time since the beginning of the rainy season, roof type, wind speed, and wind direction) and air pollution parameters (O3, SO2, NO2, NO, PM2.5, and PM2.5–10) on roof runoff quality were studied. Three roofs of three common types (concrete, steel sheets, and tiles) were constructed. Roof-generated runoff was collected over two rainy seasons (>50 rain events) and were analysed for presence of metals, chemical and physical constituents, and faecal coliforms (a total of 23 parameters). Rain depth and runoff volume from each roof were recorded for each rain event. Most parameters examined complied with the Israeli potable water regulations. A stepwise multivariate linear regression established a significant effect of roof type on runoff pollutant concentrations, especially for ones generated by the roof material itself (e.g., Ca from the concrete roof and Zn from roof tiles). A significant effect of various air pollutants on the quality of roof-runoff water was found, as explained by rain washing off pollutants that accumulated in the atmosphere during the antecedent dry period. Both O3 and PM2.5–10 affected 17 quality parameters each. Rain depth affected only four out of the 23 water quality variables. In contrast, the length of the dry period between consecutive rain events was an important factor, affecting 12 roof-runoff quality variables. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; roof runoff quality; environmental factors; air pollution; Mediterranean climate rainwater harvesting; roof runoff quality; environmental factors; air pollution; Mediterranean climate
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Friedler, E.; Gilboa, Y.; Muklada, H. Quality of Roof-Harvested Rainwater as a Function of Environmental and Air Pollution Factors in a Coastal Mediterranean City (Haifa, Israel). Water 2017, 9, 896.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top