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Water 2017, 9(11), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110826

Arsenic Transformation in Swine Wastewater with Low-Arsenic Content during Anaerobic Digestion

1
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
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Abstract

In this study, the raw wastewater (RW), and effluents from the acidogenic phase (AP) and methanogenic phase (MP) in a swine wastewater treatment plant were collected to investigate the occurrence and transformation of arsenic (As), as well as the abundance of As metabolism genes during the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The results showed that total concentrations of As generally decreased by 33–71% after AD. Further analysis showed that the As species of the dissolved fractions were present mainly as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), with arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) as the minor species. Moreover, real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed that As metabolism genes (arsC, arsenate reduction gene; aioA, arsenite oxidation gene and arsM, arsenite methylation gene) were highly abundant, with arsM being predominant among the metabolism genes. This study provides reliable evidence on As biotransformation in swine wastewater treatment process, suggesting that AD could be a valuable treatment to mitigate the risk of As in wastewater. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine wastewater; anaerobic digestion; arsenic; transformation; metabolism genes swine wastewater; anaerobic digestion; arsenic; transformation; metabolism genes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhai, W.; Qin, T.; Guo, T.; Khan, M.I.; Tang, X.; Xu, J. Arsenic Transformation in Swine Wastewater with Low-Arsenic Content during Anaerobic Digestion. Water 2017, 9, 826.

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